A vibrating‐sample magnetometer, which measures the magnetic moment of a sample when it is vibrated perpendicularly to a uniform magnetizing field, is described. With this instrument, changes as small as 10−5 to 10−6 emu have been detected, and a stability of one part in 104 has been attained. In addition to permitting convenient measurements in the usual laboratory electromagnet, this instrument eliminates or minimizes many sources of error found in other methods. It is simple, inexpensive, and versatile, yet permits precision magnetic moment measurements to be made in a uniform magnetizing field as a function of temperature, magnetizing field, and crystallographic orientation. The mechanical design and detailed operating characteristics are presented. Applications and limitations of the method are outlined.

1.
W. P.
Wolf
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780
(
1957
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2.
A comprehensive review of a number of techniques for measuring magnetization can be found in L. F. Bates, Modern Magnetism (Cambridge University Press, New York, 1951).
3.
S.
Foner
,
Phys. Rev.
101
,
1648
(
1956
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4.
Applications of shape effects to measurements of magnetic susceptibilities using nuclear resonance techniques have been described by
Reilley
,
McConnell
, and
Meisenheimer
,
Phys. Rev.
98
,
264
(
A
(
1955
),
and
B. E.
Holder
and
M. P.
Klein
,
Phys. Rev.
98
,
265
(
A
(
1955
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5.
Such measurements of Ms to 1% have been made on thin Permalloy films which exhibit narrow resonance line widths. See
M. H.
Seavey
, Jr.
and
P. E.
Tannenwald
,
J. Appl. Phys.
29
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292
(
1958
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6.
D. O.
Smith
,
Rev. Sci. Instr.
27
,
261
(
1956
),
and more recently
Dwight
,
Menyuk
, and
Smith
,
J. Appl. Phys.
29
,
491
(
1958
).
7.
The same problems would be encountered with the rotating‐coil technique recently described by
J.
Kaczer
and
Z.
Malek
,
Czech. J. Phys.
7
,
481
(
1957
).
8.
S.
Foner
,
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).
9.
S.
Foner
,
Bull. Am. Phys. Soc.
Ser. II.
2
,
128
(
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).
10.
If the sample is not saturated, only the field nonuniformity over the sample volume may be detected (see also Sec. VI B).
11.
Such materials are now available under the trade name of Magnadur in Europe, and under the trade name of Ferroxdure or Indox V in the United States.
12.
A.
Arrott
and
J. E.
Goldman
,
Rev. Sci. Instr.
28
,
99
(
1957
) employed such a technique with a moving sample. Here again, the sample motion was parallel to the applied field direction.
13.
For convenience whenever values of χ are considered, the units of χ are cgs units/g normalized to correspond to the change detectable for a 1‐g sample in an applied field of 10 kilogauss.
14.
D. K.
Stevens
and
J. H.
Crawford
, Jr.
,
Phys. Rev.
92
,
1065
(
1953
). Specifically they report χ = 10−10cgs units/g can be measured for a 1‐g Ge sample when H = 18 kilogauss and ∂H/∂χ≃3 kilogauss/cm.
15.
See, for instance,
S.
Foner
and
J. O.
Artman
,
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29
,
443
(
1958
).
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