Terahertz (THz) wave transmission in non-uniform dielectric layer containing dusty plasmas and aluminum (Al) is investigated by using the Wentzel–Kramer–Brillouin method. The application of magnetic field and increase in electromagnetic waves frequency are up-and-coming solutions for the “blackout” issue. Therefore, this work considers the effect of external magnetic field and electron density distribution. The electron density distributions are assumed to be double Gaussian profile, uniform distribution, Epstein distribution, and both right- and left-hand circularly polarized waves are analyzed. Then the effects of physical parameters and THz frequency on the transmission properties are analyzed. Results show that the presence of Al can shield electromagnetic waves, but we can still control THz waves in lower frequency band to achieve communication. By adjusting THz waves frequency and plasma parameters, waves can pass through the Al plasma sheath effectively under certain circumstances. It is expected to mitigate the blackout issue of hypersonic spacecraft.

1.
S.
Dap
,
D.
Lacroix
,
R.
Hugon
, and
J.
Bougdira
, “
Retrieving particle size and density from extinction measurement in dusty plasma, Monte Carlo inversion and Ray-tracing comparison
,”
J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer
128
,
18
26
(
2013
).
2.
J. P.
Rybak
and
R. J.
Churchill
, “
Progress in reentry communications
,”
IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst.
AES-7
,
879
894
(
1971
).
3.
E. V.
Zoby
,
R. N.
Gupta
, and
K. P.
Lee
, “
Hypervelocity stagnation-point heating rate discrepancies
,”
J. Spacecr. Rockets
30
,
773
774
(
1993
).
4.
L.
Malik
,
S.
Rawat
,
M.
Kumar
, and
A.
Tevatia
, “
Simulation studies on aerodynamic features of Eurofighter Typhoon and Dassault Rafale combat aircraft
,”
Mater. Today
38
,
191
197
(
2021
).
5.
V. N.
Tsytovich
,
A. V.
Ivlev
,
A.
Burkert
, and
G. E.
Morfill
, “
Compact dusty clouds in a cosmic environment
,”
Astrophys. J.
780
(
2
),
131
(
2014
).
6.
H.
Thomas
,
G. E.
Morfill
,
V.
Demmel
,
J.
Goree
,
B.
Feuerbacher
, and
D.
Möhlmann
, “
Plasma crystal: Coulomb crystallization in a dusty plasma
,”
Phys. Rev. Lett.
73
,
652
(
1994
).
7.
S. I.
Krasheninnikov
,
Y.
Tomita
,
R. D.
Smirnov
, and
R. K.
Janev
, “
On dust dynamics in tokamak edge plasmas
,”
Phys. Plasmas
11
(
6
),
3141
3150
(
2004
).
8.
J.
Winter
, “
Dust: A new challenge in nuclear fusion research
,”
Phys. Plasmas
7
(
10
),
3862
3866
(
2000
).
9.
M.
Kim
,
M.
Keidar
, and
I. D.
Boyd
, “
Electrostatic manipulation of a hypersonic plasma layer: Images of the two-dimensional sheath
,”
IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci.
36
(
4
),
1198
1199
(
2008
).
10.
F. Y.
Jin
,
H. H.
Tong
, and
Z. B.
Shi
, “
Effects of external magnetic field on propagation of electromagnetic wave in uniform magnetized plasma slabs
,”
Comput. Phys. Commun.
175
(
8
),
545
552
(
2006
).
11.
Z. H.
Peng
,
J. C.
Peng
, and
Y. F.
Peng
, “
Investigation of the microwave absorbing mechanisms of HiPco carbon nanotubes
,”
Physica E
40
(
7
),
2400
2405
(
2008
).
12.
A.
Moradi
, “
Comment on “Microwave attenuation of hydrogen plasma in carbon nanotubes
”,”
J. Appl. Phys.
107
(
6
),
066104
(
2010
).
13.
A.
Moradi
and
M. H.
Teimourpour
, “
Microwave shielding of HiPco carbon nanotube films
,”
J. Plasma Phys.
77
(
5
),
639
651
(
2011
).
14.
H.
Yu
,
G. J.
Xu
, and
Z. Q.
Zheng
, “
Transmission characteristics of terahertz waves propagation in magnetized plasma using the WKB method
,”
Optik
244
(
188
),
244
250
(
2019
).
15.
C. X.
Yuan
,
Z. X.
Zhou
, and
J. W.
Zhang
, “
FDTD analysis of terahertz wave propagation in a high-temperature unmagnetized plasma slab
,”
IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci.
39
(
7
),
1577
1584
(
2011
).
16.
Z. K.
Zhou
,
X. H.
Wan
, and
X. L.
Li
, “
SO-FDTD analysis on transmission characteristics of terahertz wave in plasma
,”
Phys. Plasmas
28
(
7
),
072105
(
2021
).
17.
J. F.
Liu
,
X. L.
Xi
, and
G. B.
Wan
, “
Simulation of electromagnetic wave propagation through plasma sheath using the moving-window finite-difference time-domain method
,”
IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci.
39
(
3
),
852
855
(
2011
).
18.
X.
Gao
and
B.
Jiang
, “
A matching approach to communicate through the plasma sheath surrounding a hypersonic vehicle
,”
J. Appl. Phys.
117
(
23
),
233301
(
2015
).
19.
Y. T.
Liu
,
W.
Chen
, and
L. X.
Yang
, “
Research on the propagation properties of THz circularly polarized wave in BGK model inhomogeneous dusty plasma
,”
Phys. Plasmas
27
,
093702
(
2020
).
20.
X. H.
Wan
,
Z. K.
Zhou
, and
J.
Zhang
, “
Transmission characteristics of terahertz waves in high temperature inhomogeneous magnetized plasma
,”
Europhys. Lett.
134
,
24002
(
2021
).
21.
L.
Zhang
,
Y. H.
Wu
, and
X. H.
Wan
, “
Application of the scattering matrix method for investigating the propagation characteristics of terahertz waves in magnetized dusty plasma
,”
Phys. Plasmas
30
(
1
),
013703
(
2023
).
22.
W. R.
Tribe
,
D. A.
Newnham
,
P. F.
Taday
, and
M. C.
Kemp
, “
Hidden object detection: Security applications of terahertz technology
,”
Proc. SPIE
5354
,
168
176
(
2004
).
23.
E.
Pickwell
,
B. E.
Cole
,
A. J.
Fitzgerald
,
M.
Pepper
, and
V. P.
Wallace
, “
In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation
,”
Phys. Med. Biol.
49
,
1595
1607
(
2004
).
24.
M. Y.
Liang
,
C. L.
Zhang
, and
R.
Zhao
, “
Experimental 0.22 THz stepped frequency radar system for ISAR imaging
,”
J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves
35
,
780
789
(
2014
).
25.
C.
Baker
,
T.
Lo
, and
W. R.
Tribe
, “
Detection of concealed explosives at a distance using terahertz technology
,”
Proc. IEEE
95
(
8
),
1559
1565
(
2007
).
26.
A. T.
Chen
,
H. Y.
Sun
, and
Y. P.
Han
, “
Propagation characteristics of oblique incidence terahertz wave through non-uniform plasma
,”
Chin. Phys. B
28
(
1
),
014201
(
2019
).
27.
H. W.
Lei
,
H.
Wang
, and
X.
Yang
, “
Analysis and progress of terahertz techniques applied in space science
,”
Space Electron. Technol.
14
(
2
),
1
7
(
2017
) (in Chinese).
28.
H. Q.
Wang
,
B.
Deng
, and
Y. L.
Qin
, “
Review of terahertz radar technology
,”
J. Radars
7
(
1
),
1
21
(
2018
) (in Chinese).
29.
L.
Zheng
,
Q.
Zhao
, and
S. Z.
Zhao
, “
Studies of terahertz wave propagation in non-magnetized plasma
,”
Acta Phys. Sin.
61
,
245202
(
2012
) (in Chinese).
30.
J.
Jiang
,
C. X.
Chen
, and
C.
Wang
, “
Properties of terahertz wave propagation in inhomogeneous plasma sheath
,”
J. Syst. Simul.
27
(
12
),
3109
3115
(
2015
) (in Chinese).
31.
Y.
Tian
,
Y. P.
Han
, and
Y. J.
Ling
, “
Propagation of terahertz electromagnetic wave in plasma with inhomogeneous collision frequency
,”
Phys. Plasmas
21
,
023301
(
2014
).
32.
L. J.
Guo
,
L. X.
Guo
, and
J. T.
Li
, “
Propagation of terahertz electromagnetic waves in a magnetized plasma with inhomogeneous electron density and collision
,”
Phys. Plasmas
24
,
022108
(
2017
).
33.
B. H.
Kolner
,
R. A.
Buckles
, and
P. M.
Conklin
, “
Plasma characterization with terahertz pulses
,”
J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.
14
(
13
),
505
512
(
2008
).
34.
M. Y.
Wang
,
M. X.
Yu
, and
Z. T.
Xu
, “
Propagation properties of terahertz waves in a time-varying dusty plasma slab using FDTD
,”
IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci.
43
(
12
),
4182
4186
(
2015
).
35.
R.
Ghosh
,
A.
Dey
, and
M. K.
Kavitha
, “
Development of flat absorber black anodic coating on 3D printed Al-10Si-Mg alloy for spacecraft thermal control application
,”
Ceram. Int.
48
(
23
),
35689
35697
(
2022
).
36.
R.
Ghosh
,
A.
Venugopal
, and
P.
Sankaravelayudham
, “
Effect of thermomechanicl treatment on the environmentally induced cracking of AA7075 alloy
,”
J. Mater. Eng. Perform.
24
(
2
),
545
555
(
2015
).
37.
D. F.
DuBois
,
V.
Gilinsky
, and
M. G.
Kivelson
, “
Propagation of electromagnetic waves in plasmas
,”
Phys. Rev.
129
(
6
),
2376
(
1963
).
38.
Y. Y.
Chen
,
H. B.
Wang
, and
D. L.
Zhao
, “
The applicability of WKB method in studying inhomogeneous dusty plasma
,”
IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci.
48
(
1
),
275
279
(
2019
).
39.
R. J.
Yu
,
Y. Y.
Chen
, and
D. L.
Zhao
, “
Effect of dust particle on dusty plasma's dispersion characteristic
,”
Optik
176
,
60
67
(
2019
).
40.
M. Y.
Wang
,
M.
Zhang
, and
G. P.
Li
, “
FDTD simulation on terahertz waves propagation through a dusty plasma
,”
Plasma Sci. Technol.
18
(
8
),
798
(
2016
).
41.
K. Y.
Kim
, “
Measurements of terahertz electrical conductivity of intense laser-heated dense aluminum plasmas
,”
Phys. Rev. Lett.
100
(
13
),
135002
(
2008
).
42.
N.
Laman
and
D.
Grischkowsky
, “
Reduced conductivity in the terahertz skin-depth layer of metals
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
90
(
12
),
122115
(
2007
).
43.
A.
Moradi
, “
Dispersive electrostatic waves on a cold magnetized electron gas half-space
,”
Phys. Plasmas
28
(
5
),
054501
(
2021
).
44.
Z. H.
Peng
,
J. C.
Peng
, and
Y.
Ou
, “
Microwave absorbing properties of hydrogen plasma in single wall carbon nanotubes
,”
Phys. Lett. A
359
(
1
),
56
60
(
2006
).
45.
A.
Moradi
, “
Microwave absorption of magnetized hydrogen plasma in carbon nanotubes
,”
Phys. Plasmas
16
(
11
),
113501
(
2009
).
46.
H.
Li
,
Z. P.
Zhang
, and
X.
Yang
, “
Propagation of terahertz waves in nonuniform plasma slab under “electromagnetic window
”,”
Chin. Phys. B
31
(
3
),
035202
(
2022
).
47.
X. H.
Wan
,
Z. K.
Zhou
, and
J.
Zhang
, “
Propagation characteristics of obliquely incident terahertz waves in high-temperature magnetized plasma
,”
IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci.
50
(
2
),
241
249
(
2022
).
48.
M. Y.
Wang
,
H. L.
Li
, and
Y. L.
Dong
, “
Propagation matrix method study on THz waves propagation in a dusty plasma sheath
,”
IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.
64
(
1
),
286
290
(
2015
).
49.
H.
Zhou
,
X. P.
Li
, and
Y. M.
Liu
, “
Effects of nonuniform magnetic fields on the magnetic window in blackout mitigation
,”
IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci.
45
(1),
15
23
(
2017
).
50.
W.
Chen
,
L. X.
Yang
, and
Z. X.
Huang
, “
Research on the propagation characteristics of THz waves in spatial inhomogeneous and time-varying and weakly ionized dusty plasma
,”
IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci.
47
(
10
),
4745
4752
(
2019
).
51.
B.
Guo
and
X. G.
Wang
, “
Power absorption of high-frequency electromagnetic waves in a partially ionized magnetized plasma
,”
Phys. Plasmas
12
,
084506
(
2005
).
52.
J. Z.
Duan
,
C. L.
Wang
, and
J. R.
Zhang
, “
Influence of charging process and size distribution of dust grain on the electric conductivity of dusty plasma
,”
Phys. Plasmas
19
(
8
),
083703
(
2012
).
53.
Q.
Deng
,
C.
Chen
, and
W.
Chen
, “
Study on the absorption properties of terahertz circularly polarized wave in FPL model fully ionized dusty plasma
,”
IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci.
51
(
3
),
847
852
(
2023
).
You do not currently have access to this content.