The paper [R .T. Sandberg and A. G. R. Thomas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 130, 085001 (2023)] proposed a scheme to generate ultrashort, high energy pulses of XUV photons through dephasingless photon acceleration in a beam-driven plasma wakefield. An ultrashort laser pulse is placed in the plasma wake behind a relativistic electron bunch so that it experiences a density gradient and therefore shifts up in frequency. Using a tapered density profile provides phase-matching between the driver and witness pulses. In this paper, we study via particle-in-cell simulation the limits, practical realization, and 3D considerations for beam-driven photon acceleration using the tapered plasma density profile. We study increased efficiency by the use of a chirped drive pulse, establishing the necessity of the density profile shape we derived as opposed to a simple linear ramp, but also demonstrating that a piecewise representation of the profile—as could be experimentally achieved by a series of gas cells—is adequate for achieving phase matching. Scalings to even higher frequency shifts are given.

1.
J.
Rossbach
,
J. R.
Schneider
, and
W.
Wurth
, “
10 years of pioneering x-ray science at the free-electron laser FLASH at DESY
,”
Phys. Rep.
808
,
1
74
(
2019
).
2.
M. A.
Khokhlova
and
V. V.
Strelkov
, “
Highly efficient XUV generation via high-order frequency mixing
,”
New J. Phys.
22
,
093030
(
2020
).
3.
Z.
Chang
,
A.
Rundquist
,
H.
Wang
,
M. M.
Murnane
, and
H. C.
Kapteyn
, “
Generation of coherent soft x rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics
,”
Phys. Rev. Lett.
79
,
2967
2970
(
1997
).
4.
S. V.
Bulanov
,
T.
Esirkepov
, and
T.
Tajima
, “
Light intensification towards the Schwinger limit
,”
Phys. Rev. Lett.
91
,
085001
085004
(
2003
).
5.
M.
Kando
,
A. S.
Pirozhkov
,
K.
Kawase
,
T. Z.
Esirkepov
,
Y.
Fukuda
,
H.
Kiriyama
,
H.
Okada
,
I.
Daito
,
T.
Kameshima
,
Y.
Hayashi
,
H.
Kotaki
,
M.
Mori
,
J. K.
Koga
,
H.
Daido
,
A. Y.
Faenov
,
T.
Pikuz
,
J.
Ma
,
L. M.
Chen
,
E. N.
Ragozin
,
T.
Kawachi
,
Y.
Kato
,
T.
Tajima
, and
S. V.
Bulanov
, “
Enhancement of photon number reflected by the relativistic flying mirror
,”
Phys. Rev. Lett.
103
,
235003
(
2009
).
6.
S. V.
Bulanov
,
T. Z.
Esirkepov
, and
M.
Kando
, “
Relativistic mirrors in plasmas. novel results and perspectives
,”
Phys.-Usp.
56
,
429
(
2013
).
7.
B. R.
Benware
,
C. D.
Macchietto
,
C. H.
Moreno
, and
J. J.
Rocca
, “
Demonstration of a high average power tabletop soft x-ray laser
,”
Phys. Rev. Lett.
81
,
5804
5807
(
1998
).
8.
S. C.
Wilks
,
J. M.
Dawson
,
W. B.
Mori
,
T.
Katsouleas
, and
M. E.
Jones
, “
Photon accelerator
,”
Phys. Rev. Lett.
62
,
2600
2603
(
1989
).
9.
S.
Weinberg
, “
Eikonal method in magnetohydrodynamics
,”
Phys. Rev.
126
,
1899
1909
(
1962
).
10.
J. T.
Mendonca
,
Theory of Photon Acceleration
(
Institute of Physics
,
2001
).
11.
E.
Esarey
,
G.
Joyce
, and
P.
Sprangle
, “
Frequency up-shifting of laser pulses by copropagating ionization fronts
,”
Phys. Rev. A
44
,
3908
3911
(
1991
).
12.
L.
Oliveira e Silva
and
J. T.
Mendonca
, “
Photon acceleration in superluminous and accelerated ionization fronts
,”
IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci.
24
,
316
322
(
1996
).
13.
M. R.
Shcherbakov
,
K.
Werner
,
Z.
Fan
,
N.
Talisa
,
E.
Chowdhury
, and
G.
Shvets
, “
Photon acceleration and tunable broadband harmonics generation in nonlinear time-dependent metasurfaces
,”
Nat. Commun.
10
,
1345
(
2019
).
14.
J. M.
Dias
,
C.
Stenz
,
N.
Lopes
,
X.
Badiche
,
F.
Blasco
,
A.
Dos Santos
,
L.
Oliveira e Silva
,
A.
Mysyrowicz
,
A.
Antonetti
, and
J. T.
Mendonça
, “
Experimental evidence of photon acceleration of ultrashort laser pulses in relativistic ionization fronts
,”
Phys. Rev. Lett.
78
,
4773
4776
(
1997
).
15.
C. W.
Siders
,
S. P.
Le Blanc
,
D.
Fisher
,
T.
Tajima
,
M. C.
Downer
,
A.
Babine
,
A.
Stepanov
, and
A.
Sergeev
, “
Laser wakefield excitation and measurement by femtosecond longitudinal interferometry
,”
Phys. Rev. Lett.
76
,
3570
3573
(
1996
).
16.
C. D.
Murphy
,
R.
Trines
,
J.
Vieira
,
A. J. W.
Reitsma
,
R.
Bingham
,
J. L.
Collier
,
E. J.
Divall
,
P. S.
Foster
,
C. J.
Hooker
,
A. J.
Langley
,
P. A.
Norreys
,
R. A.
Fonseca
,
F.
Fiuza
,
L. O.
Silva
,
J. T.
Mendonça
,
W. B.
Mori
,
J. G.
Gallacher
,
R.
Viskup
,
D. A.
Jaroszynski
,
S. P. D.
Mangles
,
A. G. R.
Thomas
,
K.
Krushelnick
, and
Z.
Najmudin
, “
Evidence of photon acceleration by laser wake fields
,”
Phys. Plasmas
13
,
033108
(
2006
).
17.
M. R.
Edwards
,
K.
Qu
,
Q.
Jia
,
J. M.
Mikhailova
, and
N. J.
Fisch
, “
Cascaded chirped photon acceleration for efficient frequency conversion
,”
Phys. Plasmas
25
,
053102
(
2018
).
18.
Z.
Nie
,
C. H.
Pai
,
J.
Hua
,
C.
Zhang
,
Y.
Wu
,
Y.
Wan
,
F.
Li
,
J.
Zhang
,
Z.
Cheng
,
Q.
Su
,
S.
Liu
,
Y.
Ma
,
X.
Ning
,
Y.
He
,
W.
Lu
,
H. H.
Chu
,
J.
Wang
,
W. B.
Mori
, and
C.
Joshi
, “
Relativistic single-cycle tunable infrared pulses generated from a tailored plasma density structure
,”
Nat. Photonics
12
,
489
494
(
2018
).
19.
E.
Esarey
,
A.
Ting
, and
P.
Sprangle
, “
Frequency shifts induced in laser pulses by plasma waves
,”
Phys. Rev. A
42
,
3526
3531
(
1990
).
20.
V. A.
Mironov
,
A. M.
Sergeev
,
E. V.
Vanin
,
G.
Brodin
, and
J.
Lundberg
, “
Upper limits for frequency up-conversion in the nonlinear photon accelerator
,”
Phys. Rev. A
46
,
R6178
R6180
(
1992
).
21.
S. V.
Bulanov
,
V. I.
Kirsanov
,
F.
Pegoraro
, and
A. S.
Sakharov
, “
Charged particle and photon acceleration by wake field plasma waves in nonuniform plasmas
,”
Laser Phys.
3
,
1078
1087
(
1993
).
22.
A. J.
Howard
,
D.
Turnbull
,
A. S.
Davies
,
P.
Franke
,
D. H.
Froula
, and
J. P.
Palastro
, “
Photon acceleration in a flying focus
,”
Phys. Rev. Lett.
123
,
124801
(
2019
).
23.
J. P.
Palastro
,
J. L.
Shaw
,
P.
Franke
,
D.
Ramsey
,
T. T.
Simpson
, and
D. H.
Froula
, “
Dephasingless laser wakefield acceleration
,”
Phys. Rev. Lett.
124
,
134802
(
2020
).
24.
A.
Debus
,
R.
Pausch
,
A.
Huebl
,
K.
Steiniger
,
R.
Widera
,
T. E.
Cowan
,
U.
Schramm
, and
M.
Bussmann
, “
Circumventing the dephasing and depletion limits of laser-wakefield acceleration
,”
Phys. Rev. X
9
,
031044
(
2019
).
25.
C.
Caizergues
,
S.
Smartsev
,
V.
Malka
, and
C.
Thaury
, “
Phase-locked laser-wakefield electron acceleration
,”
Nat. Photonics
14
,
475
479
(
2020
).
26.
S. V.
Bulanov
,
V. A.
Vshivkov
,
G. I.
Dudnikova
,
N. M.
Naumova
,
F.
Pegoraro
, and
I. V.
Pogorelsky
, “
Laser acceleration of charged particles in inhomogeneous plasmas I
,”
Plasma Phys. Rep.
23
,
259
269
(
1997
).
27.
P.
Sprangle
,
B.
Hafizi
,
J. R.
Peñano
,
R. F.
Hubbard
,
A.
Ting
,
C. I.
Moore
,
D. F.
Gordon
,
A.
Zigler
,
D.
Kaganovich
, and
T. M.
Antonsen
, Jr.
, “
Wakefield generation and GeV acceleration in tapered plasma channels
,”
Phys. Rev. E
63
,
056405
(
2001
).
28.
E.
Guillaume
,
A.
Döpp
,
C.
Thaury
,
K.
Ta Phuoc
,
A.
Lifschitz
,
G.
Grittani
,
J.-P.
Goddet
,
A.
Tafzi
,
S.
Chou
,
L.
Veisz
, and
V.
Malka
, “
Electron rephasing in a laser-wakefield accelerator
,”
Phys. Rev. Lett.
115
,
155002
(
2015
).
29.
S. V.
Bulanov
,
T. Z.
Esirkepov
,
Y.
Hayashi
,
H.
Kiriyama
,
J. K.
Koga
,
H.
Kotaki
,
M.
Mori
, and
M.
Kando
, “
On some theoretical problems of laser wake-field accelerators
,”
J. Plasma Phys.
82
,
905820308
(
2016
).
30.
D.
Guénot
,
D.
Gustas
,
A.
Vernier
,
B.
Beaurepaire
,
F.
Böhle
,
M.
Bocoum
,
M.
Lozano
,
A.
Jullien
,
R.
Lopez-Martens
,
A.
Lifschitz
, and
J.
Faure
, “
Relativistic electron beams driven by kHz single-cycle light pulses
,”
Nat. Photonics
11
,
293
296
(
2017
).
31.
J.
Kim
,
V. L. J.
Phung
,
K.
Roh
,
M.
Kim
,
K.
Kang
, and
H.
Suk
, “
Development of a density-tapered capillary gas cell for laser wakefield acceleration
,”
Rev. Sci. Instrum.
92
,
023511
(
2021
).
32.
R. T.
Sandberg
and
A. G. R.
Thomas
, “
Photon acceleration from optical to XUV
,”
Phys. Rev. Lett.
130
,
085001
(
2023
).
33.
J. B.
Rosenzweig
, “
Nonlinear plasma dynamics in the plasma wake-field accelerator
,”
Phys. Rev. Lett.
58
,
555
558
(
1987
).
34.
R. T.
Sandberg
and
A. G. R.
Thomas
, “
Dephasingless plasma wakefield photon acceleration
,” Phys. Rev. E (submitted).
35.
R. G.
Hemker
, “
Particle-in-cell modeling of plasma-based accelerators in two and three dimensions
,” Ph.D. thesis (
Ucla
,
1999
).
36.
R. A.
Fonseca
,
L. O.
Silva
,
F. S.
Tsung
,
V. K.
Decyk
,
W.
Lu
,
C.
Ren
,
W. B.
Mori
,
S.
Deng
,
S.
Lee
,
T.
Katsouleas
, and
J. C.
Adam
, “
Osiris: A three-dimensional, fully relativistic particle in cell code for modeling plasma based accelerators
,” in
Computational Science—ICCS 2002
, edited by
P. M. A.
Sloot
,
A. G.
Hoekstra
,
C. J. K.
Tan
, and
J. J.
Dongarra
(
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
,
Berlin, Heidelberg
,
2002
), pp.
342
351
.
37.
R.
Lehe
,
M.
Kirchen
,
I. A.
Andriyash
,
B. B.
Godfrey
, and
J. L.
Vay
, “
A spectral, quasi-cylindrical and dispersion-free particle-in-cell algorithm
,”
Comput. Phys. Commun.
203
,
66
82
(
2016
).
38.
V.
Yakimenko
,
L.
Alsberg
,
E.
Bong
,
G.
Bouchard
,
C.
Clarke
,
C.
Emma
,
S.
Green
,
C.
Hast
,
M.
Hogan
,
J.
Seabury
,
N.
Lipkowitz
,
B.
O'Shea
,
D.
Storey
,
G.
White
, and
G.
Yocky
, “
FACET-II facility for advanced accelerator experimental tests
,”
Phys. Rev. Accel. Beams
22
,
101301
(
2019
).
39.
W.
Mori
, “
The physics of the nonlinear optics of plasmas at relativistic intensities for short-pulse lasers
,”
IEEE J. Quantum Electron.
33
,
1942
1953
(
1997
).
40.
F.
Li
,
T. N.
Dalichaouch
,
J. R.
Pierce
,
X.
Xu
,
F. S.
Tsung
,
W.
Lu
,
C.
Joshi
, and
W. B.
Mori
, “
Ultra-bright electron bunch injection in a plasma wakefield driven by a superluminal flying focus electron beam
,” arXiv:2108.00030 (
2021
).
41.
L.
Oliveira e Silva
and
J. T.
Mendonça
, “
Kinetic theory of photon acceleration: Time-dependent spectral evolution of ultrashort laser pulses
,”
Phys. Rev. E
57
,
3423
3431
(
1998
).
42.
T.
Katsouleas
,
S.
Wilks
,
P.
Chen
,
J. M.
Dawson
, and
J. J.
Su
, “
Beam loading in plasma accelerators
,”
Part. Accel.
22
,
81
99
(
1987
).
43.
M.
Tzoufras
,
W.
Lu
,
F. S.
Tsung
,
C.
Huang
,
W. B.
Mori
,
T.
Katsouleas
,
J.
Vieira
,
R. A.
Fonseca
, and
L. O.
Silva
, “
Beam loading by electrons in nonlinear plasma wakes
,”
Phys. Plasmas
16
,
056705
(
2009
).
You do not currently have access to this content.