The interaction between Edge-Localized Modes (ELMs) and Resonant Magnetic Perturbations (RMPs) is modeled with the magnetohydrodynamic code JOREK using experimental parameters from ASDEX Upgrade discharges. According to the modeling, the ELM mitigation or suppression is optimal when the amplification of both tearing and peeling-kink responses results in a better RMP penetration. The ELM mitigation or suppression is not only due to the reduction of the pressure gradient but predominantly arises from the toroidal coupling between the ELMs and the RMP-induced mode at the plasma edge, forcing the edge modes to saturate at a low level. The bifurcation from ELM mitigation to ELM suppression is observed when the RMP amplitude is increased. ELM mitigation is characterized by rotating modes at the edge, while the mode locking to RMPs is induced by the resonant braking of the electron perpendicular flow in the ELM suppression regime.

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