Quasineutral particle-in-cell models of ions must fulfill the kinetic Bohm criterion, in its inequality form, at the domain boundary in order to match correctly with solutions of the Debye sheaths tied to the walls. The simple, fluid form of the Bohm criterion is shown to be a bad approximation of the exact, kinetic form when the ion velocity distribution function has a significant dispersion and involves different charge numbers. The fulfillment of the Bohm criterion is measured by a weighting algorithm at the boundary, but linear weighting algorithms have difficulties to reproduce the nonlinear behavior around the sheath edge. A surface weighting algorithm with an extended temporal weighting is proposed and shown to behave better than the standard volumetric weighting. Still, this must be supplemented by a forcing algorithm of the kinetic Bohm criterion. This postulates a small potential fall in a supplementary, thin, transition layer. The electron-wall interaction is shown to be of little relevance in the fulfillment of the Bohm criterion.

1.
L.
Tonks
and
I.
Langmuir
,
Phys. Rev.
34
,
876
(
1929
).
2.
D.
Bohm
,
The Characteristics of Electrical Discharges in Magnetic Fields
(
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
,
1949
), p.
77
.
3.
E.
Harrison
and
W.
Thompson
,
Proc. Phys. Soc. London
74
,
145
(
1959
).
4.
K.
Riemann
,
J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.
24
,
493
(
1991
).
5.
M. A.
Raadu
,
Phys. Rep.
178
,
25
(
1989
).
6.
E.
Ahedo
,
J.
Sanmartín
, and
M.
Martínez-Sánchez
,
Phys. Fluids B
4
,
3847
(
1992
).
7.
E.
Ahedo
and
M.
Martínez-Sánchez
,
Phys. Rev. Lett.
103
,
135002
(
2009
).
8.
C.
Birdsall
and
A.
Langdon
,
Plasma Physics via Computer Simulation
(
IOP
,
Bristol
,
1991
).
9.
I.
Hutchinson
,
Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion
44
,
1953
(
2002
).
10.
M.
Lampe
,
G.
Joyce
,
W.
Manheimer
, and
S.
Slinker
,
IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci.
26
,
1592
(
1998
).
11.
J.
Fife
and
M.
Martinez-Sanchez
, AIAA Paper No. 96-3197,
1996
.
12.
J. M.
Fife
, “
Hybrid-PIC modeling and electrostatic probe survey of Hall thrusters
,” Ph.D. thesis,
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
,
1998
.
13.
F.
Parra
,
E.
Ahedo
,
M.
Fife
, and
M.
Martínez-Sánchez
,
J. Appl. Phys.
100
,
023304
(
2006
).
14.
F.
Parra
,
D.
Escobar
, and
E.
Ahedo
, AIAA Paper No. 2006-4830,
2006
.
15.
I.
Maqueda
,
D.
Escobar
, and
E.
Ahedo
,
30th International Electric Propulsion Conference
, Florence, Italy (
Electric Rocket Propulsion Society
,
Fairview Park, OH
,
2007
), Paper No. IEPC 2007-066.
16.
D.
Escobar
and
E.
Ahedo
,
IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci.
36
,
2043
(
2008
).
17.
G.
Hagelaar
,
J.
Bareilles
,
L.
Garrigues
, and
J.
Boeuf
,
J. Appl. Phys.
91
,
5592
(
2002
).
18.
M. K.
Scharfe
,
N.
Gascon
,
M. A.
Cappelli
, and
E.
Fernandez
,
Phys. Plasmas
13
,
083505
(
2006
).
19.
J.
Koo
and
I.
Boyd
,
Phys. Plasmas
13
,
033501
(
2006
).
20.
F.
Parra
,
E.
Ahedo
,
M.
Martínez-Sánchez
, and
J.
Fife
,
SP-555: 4th Spacecraft Propulsion Conference
, Sardinia, Italy (
European Space Agency
,
Noordwijk, The Netherlands
,
2004
).
21.
F.
Parra
and
E.
Ahedo
, AIAA Paper No. 2004-3955,
2004
.
22.
D.
Escobar
,
E.
Ahedo
, and
F. I.
Parra
,
Proceedings of the 29th International Electric Propulsion Conference
, Princeton (
Electric Rocket Propulsion Society
,
Fairview Park, OH
,
2005
), Paper No. IEPC-2005-041.
23.
F.
Parra
, Actualización y mejora de un código PIC-fluido bidimensional para el flujo de plasma en motores de efecto Hall, Engineer Degree Thesis (available at http://web.fmetsia.upm.es/ep2/), Universidad Politécnica de Madrid,
2004
.
24.
S.
Barral
,
K.
Makowski
,
Z.
Peradzynski
, and
M.
Dudeck
,
Phys. Plasmas
12
,
073504
(
2005
).
25.
K.
Riemann
,
IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci.
23
,
709
(
1995
).
26.
R.
Santos
and
E.
Ahedo
, AIAA Paper No. 2009-4913,
2009
.
27.
E.
Ahedo
and
D.
Escobar
,
Phys. Plasmas
15
,
033504
(
2008
).
28.
E.
Ahedo
,
Phys. Plasmas
9
,
4340
(
2002
).
29.
S.
Barral
and
E.
Ahedo
,
Phys. Rev. E
79
,
046401
(
2009
).
You do not currently have access to this content.