Atomizing liquids by injecting them into fast moving gaseous crossflows is a common method to generate fuel sprays in gas turbine engines and augmentors. To understand the physical processes that result in the breakup of the injected liquid core, detailed numerical simulations of the primary atomization region were performed for a Weber number 330, momentum flux ratio 6.6 turbulent liquid jet injected into a high pressure channel crossflow.1 Details of the employed numerical methods are provided in Refs. 2 and 3.

Figure 1 shows in a side view the bending of the atomizing liquid jet in the direction of the crossflow and the resulting liquid spray drops penetrating the crossflow channel. Two distinct breakup modes of the jet can be discerned. In the first, shown in Fig. 2, ligaments are formed on the sides of the liquid jet close to the injector, stretched via interaction with the gaseous flow, and broken into drops due to capillary forces. In the second, shown in Fig. 3, instabilities on the windward facing side of the liquid jet lead to the formation of bag-like structures that break due to the interaction with the crossflow resulting in ligaments that again break due to capillary forces forming spray drops.

This work was supported in part by NavAir SBIR N07-046 and Cascade Technologies Inc.

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