When benthic fish engage in predation, they often swim near the riverbank or close to hard rocks, where they are subjected to the combined effects of side and benthic walls. This study focuses on the brown trout and employs a three-dimensional numerical model to simulate the process of brown trout accelerating from a stationary state to a cruising state under the influence of wall effects. A self-developed subroutine algorithm is applied to solve the various hydrodynamic parameters of brown trout swimming. By varying the distance between the fish's center of gravity and the wall, this study explores the self-propelled performance and efficiency of fish swimming affected by the sidewall as well as the combined influence of the side and benthic walls. This study also reveals the hydrodynamic mechanism of wall effects that impact the performance of fish swimming in the body/caudal fin (BCF) mode. The results demonstrate that when the distance is less than 0.5 times the body length of the fish, swimming near the sidewall can enhance speed and thrust, but the swimming efficiency will reduce. Closer proximity to the benthic wall leads to increased power consumption and decreased efficiency, which is disadvantageous for fish swimming. The findings of this study reveal the unstable wall effects experienced by fish and offer insights for designing biomimetic underwater vehicles that leverage wall effects as well as for creating habitats that support fish swimming in the BCF mode.

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