The shock surface geometry is investigated with direct numerical simulations of a weak normal shock wave propagating in turbulence. The geometry is quantified with the principal curvatures of the surface. A large part of the surface has an approximately flat saddle shape, while elliptic concave and convex shapes with a large curvature intermittently appear on the shock surface. The pressure–dilatation correlation in the governing equation of pressure is investigated at the shock wave with the decomposition into three terms associated with the velocity gradients in the two directions of the principal curvatures and the normal direction of the shock wave. Fluid expansion in the tangential direction occurs at the shock wave with a convex shape in the direction of the shock propagation, resulting in a smaller pressure jump across the shock wave. For a concave shape, compression in the tangential direction can amplify the pressure jump. Consistently, small and large shock Mach numbers are observed for convex and concave shapes, respectively. The geometric influences are the most significant for elliptic concave and convex shapes with approximately equal curvatures in the two principal directions because the compression or expansion occurs in all tangential directions. These relations between the shock surface geometry and shock Mach number observed in turbulence are consistent with the theory of deformed shock waves, suggesting that the three-dimensional geometrical features of the shock surface are important in the modulation of shock waves due to turbulence.
Local geometry of a weak normal shock wave interacting with turbulence
Amane Kusuhata, Kento Tanaka, Tomoaki Watanabe, Koji Nagata, Akihiro Sasoh; Local geometry of a weak normal shock wave interacting with turbulence. Physics of Fluids 1 August 2023; 35 (8): 086110. https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0158309
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