Paints and coatings often feature interfacial defects due to disturbances during the deposition process, which, if they persist until solidification, worsens the product quality. In this article, we investigate the stability of a thin liquid film dragged by a vertical substrate moving against gravity, a fundamental flow configuration in various coating processes. The receptivity of the liquid film to three-dimensional disturbances is analyzed with Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) and an in-house Integral Boundary Layer (IBL) film model. The latter was used for linear stability analysis and nonlinear wave propagation analysis. The numerical implementation of the IBL film model combines a finite volume formulation with a pseudo-spectral approach for the capillary terms that allows one to investigate non-periodic surface tension-dominated flows. The numerical model was successfully validated with DNS computations. The combination of these numerical tools allows one to describe the mechanisms of capillary and nonlinear damping and identify the instability threshold of the coating processes. The results show that transverse modulations can be beneficial for damping two-dimensional waves within the range of operational conditions considered in this study, which are relevant to air-knife and slot-die coating.
Damping of three-dimensional waves on coating films dragged by moving substrates
Note: This paper is part of the special topic, Paint and Coating Physics.
David Barreiro-Villaverde, Anne Gosset, Marcos Lema, Miguel A. Mendez; Damping of three-dimensional waves on coating films dragged by moving substrates. Physics of Fluids 1 July 2023; 35 (7): 072110. https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0154144
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