In this article, we propose a theoretical model leveraging the analogy between fluid and electric variables to investigate the relation among aqueous humor (AH) circulation and drainage and intraocular pressure (IOP), the principal established risk factor of severe neuropathologies of the optic nerve such as glaucoma. IOP is the steady-state result of the balance among AH secretion (AHs), circulation (AHc), and drainage (AHd). AHs are modeled as a given volumetric flow rate electrically corresponding to an input current source. AHc is modeled by the series of two linear hydraulic conductances (HCs) representing the posterior and anterior chambers. AHd is modeled by the parallel of three HCs: a linear HC for the conventional adaptive route (ConvAR), a nonlinear HC for the hydraulic component of the unconventional adaptive route (UncAR), and a nonlinear HC for the drug-dependent component of the UncAR. The proposed model is implemented in a computational virtual laboratory to study the value attained by the IOP under physiological and pathological conditions. Simulation results (i) confirm the conjecture that the UncAR acts as a relief valve under pathological conditions, (ii) indicate that the drug-dependent AR is the major opponent to IOP increase in the case of elevated trabecular meshwork resistance, and (iii) support the use of the model as a quantitative tool to complement in vivo studies and help design and optimize medications for ocular diseases.
The role of conventional and unconventional adaptive routes in lowering of intraocular pressure: Theoretical model and simulation
Note: This paper is part of the special topic, Flow and the Eye.
Riccardo Sacco, Greta Chiaravalli, Gal Antman, Giovanna Guidoboni, Alice Verticchio, Brent Siesky, Alon Harris; The role of conventional and unconventional adaptive routes in lowering of intraocular pressure: Theoretical model and simulation. Physics of Fluids 1 June 2023; 35 (6): 061902. https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0151091
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