The keyhole arc welding technique has the advantage of improving welding efficiency by utilizing a stable keyhole mode. Accurate understanding of the keyhole effect is necessary to enhance the welding quality. Due to the high temperature and strong arc force involved, the complex gas–liquid–solid interactions in the complete keyhole process need to be explored. In order to fully demonstrate open keyhole mode welding, a three-tier sandwiched model based on multiphysics and multiphase effects was developed. The top layer of the model is filled with plasma arc, which gradually fuses and penetrates through the middle metal layer. Finally, it enters the third layer, resulting in an open keyhole mode. Multiphysics phenomena due to the plasma arc are fully included in the model, and the gas–liquid–solid interactions are calculated by combining the Volume of Fluid technique and the Enthalpy-porous technique. Arc ignition and dynamic open keyhole effect are demonstrated, and an arc discharge is shown from the open keyhole exit. The arc reflection phenomenon is observed as the arc is blocked by the weld pool frontier. The electric current path varies with the welding movement, and most of the current comes from the weld pool frontier. An experiment was conducted to obtain weld pool and keyhole images, which basically agree with the calculated results. Additionally, the calculated open keyhole time and electric potential drops also coincide well with experimental data.
Fundamental understanding of open keyhole effect in plasma arc welding
Note: This paper is part of the special topic, Multiphase flow in energy studies and applications: A special issue for MTCUE-2022.
Yan Li, Ze Yun, Xiang Zhou, Chuansong Wu; Fundamental understanding of open keyhole effect in plasma arc welding. Physics of Fluids 1 April 2023; 35 (4): 043316. https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0144148
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