This work is focused on the mechanisms of the dripping and jetting flow modes of viscoelastic semi-dilute polyacrylamide aqueous solutions co-flowing with silicone oil in co-axial capillaries. A phase diagram of the dripping, jetting, and intermediate flow modes is established. It was found that in the dripping mode, the elongation velocity of the filament between the terminal droplet and the inner capillary is controlled solely by the continuous phase rate. At the same time, the decrease in the filament diameter is due to both stretching and outflow of the polymer solution into the terminal droplet. In the jetting mode, the thread diameter was found to evolve in three stages. In the first stage, the average jet velocity increases, whereas in the second and third stages, it becomes constant and corresponds to the velocity of the continuous phase. The transition from the second to the third stage is defined by the appearance of capillary waves resulting in the formation of the beads-on-string structure. In the third stage, the filament diameter between the neighbor beads decreases exponentially and is governed by the relaxation time, which strongly depends on polymer concentration, but does not depend on the continuous phase flow rate. A simple physical model was proposed for describing the evolution of dimensions of filaments and beads during development of jet capillary instability. The universal character of the evolution of filaments and beads sizes, which is independent of concentration of semi-diluted polymer solutions and flow rates of the continuous phase, is revealed.

You do not currently have access to this content.