In order to better understand the hydroplaning phenomenon, local velocity measurements of water flow are performed inside the tire grooves of a real car rolling through a water puddle. Velocity fields are obtained by combining refraction Particle Image Velocimetry (r-PIV) illumination, seeding fluorescent particles, and either the classical two dimensional two components or the two dimensional three components stereoscopic recording arrangements. The presence of some bubble columns inside the grooves is highlighted by separate visualization using the fluorescent contrast technique evidencing two phase flow characteristics. A simple predictive model is proposed supporting the r-PIV analysis. It provides useful information to adjust the focusing distance and to understand the effect of the bubble column presence on the recorded r-PIV images, especially for the seeding particles located in the upper part of the grooves, as fluorescent light is attenuated by the bubbles. Also, the predictions provided by the model are compatible with the measurements. The velocity fields inside the grooves are analyzed using ensemble averaging performed over a set of independent snapshots, recorded with the same operating parameters. The variability of the longitudinal velocity distribution measured in a groove for several independent runs is explained by different mechanisms, like the random position of fluorescent seeding particles at various heights of the groove, the hydrodynamic interactions between longitudinal and transverse grooves, and the random location of the transverse grooves from one run to another. Three velocity components in cross sections of the longitudinal grooves are obtained using the stereoscopic arrangement. They are compatible with the presence of some longitudinal vortices assumed in the literature. The number of vortices is shown to be dependent on the aspect ratio characterizing a groove's rectangular cross section. We demonstrate, from measurements performed for several car velocities, that the velocity distribution inside longitudinal grooves shows self-similarity when using specific dimensionless length and velocity scales. Hydrodynamic interactions between longitudinal and transverse grooves are discussed on the basis of a mass budget; a fluid/structure interaction mechanism is proposed in order to correlate the overall direction of the flow in a transverse groove with its location inside the contact zone. Finally, some physical mechanisms are suggested for the birth of longitudinal vortices.

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