Direct numerical simulations are performed to study the drag reduction effect in turbulent flow along a cylinder by the circumferential oscillating Lorentz force at the Reynolds number Reτ = 272 based on the reference friction velocity and the thickness of the boundary layer. The maximum drag reduction rate obtained in the present work is 42.6%. The intensity, penetration thickness, distribution (idealized or realistic), and oscillation period of the Lorentz force are all crucial in determining the drag reduction rate. As the Lorentz force is intensified or its penetration thickness and oscillation period increase, the wall friction drag will prominently decrease as long as the circumferential flow is stable. The Stokes layer, introduced by the circumferential oscillating Lorentz force, effectively manipulated the near-wall coherent structures, leading to the decrease of the wall friction drag. However, the occurrence of the force-induced vortices in the near-wall region can also lead to significant drag increase by enhancing the radial momentum transportation due to centrifugal instability. By estimating the energy consumption rate, it is clear that the extra power to implement the Lorentz force is far more than the power saved due to drag reduction, which is the result of the low conductivity of the fluid media. Taking the coupling between the electromagnetic field and the flow field into consideration, the wall friction drag is nearly zero and the turbulence intensity in the near-wall region is very low when the induced Lorentz force is high. But the induced Lorentz drag is greatly increased and the turbulence fluctuations are enhanced in the outer region.
Drag reduction in turbulent flow along a cylinder by circumferential oscillating Lorentz force
Note: This paper is part of the Special Topic on Passive and Active Control of Turbulent Flows.
Ming-Xiang Zhao, Wei-Xi Huang, Chun-Xiao Xu; Drag reduction in turbulent flow along a cylinder by circumferential oscillating Lorentz force. Physics of Fluids 1 September 2019; 31 (9): 095104. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5118699
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