This work reports on the first three-dimensional viscoelastic dough kneading simulation performed in a spiral kneader. Unstructured tetrahedral grids were generated using ICEM CFD 17.1. Viscoelastic volume-of-fluid simulations were performed using OpenFOAM v.4.0 in combination with the RheoTool package v.2.0. The White-Metzner model with a Bird-Carreau type of shear-rate dependency of the viscosity and relaxation time was utilized to describe the rheology of the dough matrix. We validated our numerical method by simulating the viscoelastic rod climbing benchmark problem in a cylindrical bowl. The temporal evolution of the dough surface was compared with screenshots obtained with a high-speed video camera during laboratory kneading. We found that the curvature of the free surface matches the experimental data well. With our numerical approach, we were able to predict the formation, extension, and breakup of dough pockets. The dough is convected around the inner stationary rod by the rotation of the outer cylindrical bowl, whereas the spiral arm located in between these two parts produces spiral flow patterns. Vertical mixing is not as good as radial mixing and may be enhanced by utilizing two spiral arms similar to hand kneading. Industrial kneading geometries and processes may be further optimized by performing such types of simulations.
Numerical and experimental investigation of dough kneading in a three-dimensional spiral kneader
Laila Abu-Farah, Thomas B. Goudoulas, Soroush Hooshyar, Natalie Germann; Numerical and experimental investigation of dough kneading in a three-dimensional spiral kneader. Physics of Fluids 1 November 2019; 31 (11): 113104. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5122261
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