The turbulent flow over a porous trailing edge of a NACA 0018 airfoil is experimentally investigated to study the link between the hydrodynamic flow field and the acoustic scattering. Four porous trailing edges, obtained from open-cell metal foams, are tested to analyze the effects on far-field noise of the permeability of the material and of the hydrodynamic communication between the two sides of the airfoil. The latter is assessed by filling the symmetry plane of two of the porous trailing edges with a thin layer of adhesive that acts as a solid membrane. Experiments are performed at a zero degree angle of attack. Far-field noise measurements show that the most permeable metal foam reduces noise (up to 10 dB) with respect to the solid trailing edge for Strouhal numbers based on the chord below 16. At higher nondimensional frequencies, a noise increase is measured. The porous inserts with an adhesive layer show no noise abatement in the low frequency range, but only a noise increase at higher frequency. The latter is, therefore, attributed to surface-roughness noise. Flow field measurements, carried out with time-resolved planar particle image velocimetry, reveal correlation of near-wall velocity fluctuations between the two sides of the permeable trailing edges only within the frequency range where noise abatement is reported. This flow communication suggests that permeable treatments abate noise by distributing the impedance jump across the foam in the streamwise direction, promoting noise scattering from different chordwise locations along the inserts. This is further confirmed by noise source maps obtained from acoustic beamforming. For the frequency range where noise reduction is measured, the streamwise position of the main noise emission depends on the permeability of the insert. At higher frequencies, noise is scattered from upstream the trailing edge independently of the test case, in agreement with the roughness-generated noise assumption.
Mechanisms of broadband noise generation on metal foam edges
Alejandro Rubio Carpio, Francesco Avallone, Daniele Ragni, Mirjam Snellen, Sybrand van der Zwaag; Mechanisms of broadband noise generation on metal foam edges. Physics of Fluids 1 October 2019; 31 (10): 105110. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5121248
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