We present a joint experimental and numerical study of the flow structure within a cylindrical chamber generated by planar-symmetric isothermal jets, under conditions of relevance to a wide range of practical applications, including the Hybrid Solar Receiver Combustor (HSRC) technology. The HSRC features a cavity with a coverable aperture to allow it to be operated as either a combustion chamber or a solar receiver, with multiple burners to direct a flame into the chamber and a heat exchanger that absorbs the heat from both energy sources. In this study, we assess the cases of two or four inlet jets (simulating the burners), configured in a planar-symmetric arrangement and aligned at an angle to the axis (αj) over the range of 0°–90°, at a constant inlet Reynolds number of ReD = 10 500. The jets were positioned in the same axial plane near the throat and interact with each other and the cavity walls. Measurements obtained with particle image velocimetry were used together with numerical modeling employing Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes methods to characterize the large-scale flow field within selected configurations of the device. The results reveal a significant dependence of the mean flow-field on αj and the number of inlet jets (Nj). Four different flow regimes with key distinctive features were identified within the range of αj and Nj considered here. It was also found that αj has a controlling influence on the extent of back-flow through the throat, the turbulence intensity, the flow stability, and the dominant recirculation zone, while Nj has a secondary influence on the turbulence intensity, the flow stability, and the transition between each flow regime.

1.
S.
Pope
, “
An explanation of the turbulent round-jet/plane-jet anomaly
,”
AIAA J.
16
,
279
(
1978
).
2.
B.
Boersma
,
G.
Brethouwer
, and
F.
Nieuwstadt
, “
A numerical investigation on the effect of the inflow conditions on the self-similar region of a round jet
,”
Phys. Fluids
10
,
899
(
1998
).
3.
F.
Lockwood
and
A.
Naguib
, “
The prediction of the fluctuations in the properties of free, round-jet, turbulent, diffusion flames
,”
Combust. Flame
24
,
109
(
1975
).
4.
A.
Yule
, “
Large-scale structure in the mixing layer of a round jet
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
89
,
413
(
1978
).
5.
G.
Cox
, “
Multiple jet correlations for gas turbine engine combustor design
,”
J. Eng. Power
98
,
265
(
1976
).
6.
T.
Boushaki
,
J.
Sautet
,
L.
Salentey
, and
B.
Labegorre
, “
The behaviour of lifted oxy-fuel flames in burners with separated jets
,”
Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer
34
,
8
(
2007
).
7.
Q.
Li
,
H.
Yoshino
,
A.
Mochida
,
B.
Lei
,
Q.
Meng
,
L.
Zhao
, and
Y.
Lun
, “
CFD study of the thermal environment in an air-conditioned train station building
,”
Build. Environ.
44
,
1452
(
2009
).
8.
B.v. d.
Giesen
,
S.
Penders
,
M.
Loomans
,
P.
Rutten
, and
J.
Hensen
, “
Modelling and simulation of a jet fan for controlled air flow in large enclosures
,”
Environ. Modell. Software
26
,
191
(
2011
).
9.
F.
Colella
,
G.
Rein
,
R.
Borchiellini
,
R.
Carvel
,
J. L.
Torero
, and
V.
Verda
, “
Calculation and design of tunnel ventilation systems using a two-scale modelling approach
,”
Build. Environ.
44
,
2357
(
2009
).
10.
G.
Nathan
,
D.
Battye
, and
P.
Ashman
, “
Economic evaluation of a novel fuel-saver hybrid combining a solar receiver with a combustor for a solar power tower
,”
Appl. Energy
113
,
1235
(
2014
).
11.
J. H.
Lim
,
G. J.
Nathan
,
E.
Hu
, and
B. B.
Dally
, “
Analytical assessment of a novel hybrid solar tubular receiver and combustor
,”
Appl. Energy
162
,
298
(
2016
).
12.
J. H.
Lim
,
E.
Hu
, and
G. J.
Nathan
, “
Impact of start-up and shut-down losses on the economic benefit of an integrated hybrid solar cavity receiver and combustor
,”
Appl. Energy
164
,
10
(
2016
).
13.
A.
Chinnici
,
Z. F.
Tian
,
J. H.
Lim
,
G. J.
Nathan
, and
B. B.
Dally
, “
Comparison of system performance in a hybrid solar receiver combustor operating with MILD and conventional combustion. Part I: Solar-only and combustion-only employing conventional combustion
,”
Sol. Energy
147
,
489
(
2017
).
14.
A.
Chinnici
,
Z. F.
Tian
,
J. H.
Lim
,
G. J.
Nathan
, and
B. B.
Dally
, “
Comparison of system performance in a hybrid solar receiver combustor operating with MILD and conventional combustion. Part II: Effect of the combustion mode
,”
Sol. Energy
147
,
479
(
2017
).
15.
J. A.
Fitzgerald
and
S. V.
Garimella
, “
A study of the flow field of a confined and submerged impinging jet
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
41
,
1025
(
1998
).
16.
A.
Leite
,
M.
Ferreira
, and
J.
Carvalho
, “
An investigation of multiple jet acetylene flames
,”
Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer
23
,
959
(
1996
).
17.
E.
Tanaka
, “
The interference of two-dimensional parallel jets: 1st report, experiments on dual jet
,”
Bull. JSME
13
,
272
(
1970
).
18.
E.
Tanaka
, “
The interference of two-dimensional parallel jets: 2nd report, experiments on the combined flow of dual jet
,”
Bull. JSME
17
,
920
(
1974
).
19.
E.
Tanaka
and
S.
Nakata
, “
The interference of two-dimensional parallel jets: 3rd report, the region near the nozzles in triple jets
,”
Bull. JSME
18
,
1134
(
1975
).
20.
S.
Raghunathan
and
I.
Reid
, “
A study of multiple jets
,”
AIAA J.
19
,
124
(
1981
).
21.
R.
Menon
and
S.
Gollahalli
, “
Combustion characteristics of interacting multiple jets in cross flow
,”
Combust. Sci. Technol.
60
,
375
(
1988
).
22.
G. H.
Moustafa
, “
Experimental investigation of high-speed twin jets
,”
AIAA J.
32
,
2320
(
1994
).
23.
J.
Yimer
,
H.
Becker
, and
E.
Grandmaison
, “
Development of flow from multiple-jet burners
,”
Can. J. Chem. Eng.
74
,
840
(
1996
).
24.
E.
Koepf
,
W.
Villasmil
, and
A.
Meier
, “
High temperature flow visualization and aerodynamic window protection of a 100-kWth solar thermochemical receiver-reactor for ZnO dissociation
,”
Energy Procedia
69
,
1780
(
2015
).
25.
R. C.
Deo
,
J.
Mi
, and
G. J.
Nathan
, “
The influence of Reynolds number on a plane jet
,”
Phys. Fluids
20
,
075108
(
2008
).
26.
T.
Chammem
,
H.
Mhiri
, and
O.
Vauquelin
, “
Experimental and computational investigation of Reynolds number effect on the longitudinal ventilation in large enclosure of twin inclined jets
,”
Build. Environ.
67
,
87
(
2013
).
27.
T.
Chammem
,
O.
Vauquelin
, and
H.
Mhiri
, “
Performance evaluation of alternative tunnel longitudinal ventilation systems using two inclined jets
,”
Tunnelling Underground Space Technol.
41
,
53
(
2014
).
28.
T.
Boushaki
and
J.-C.
Sautet
, “
Characteristics of flow from an oxy-fuel burner with separated jets: Influence of jet injection angle
,”
Exp. Fluids
48
,
1095
(
2010
).
29.
J.
Nikuradse
, “
Gesetzmäßigkeiten der turbulenten Strömung in glatten Rohren
,”
Forsch. Geb. Ingenieurwes.
4
,
44
(
1933
).
30.
M.
Angioletti
,
E.
Nino
, and
G.
Ruocco
, “
CFD turbulent modelling of jet impingement and its validation by particle image velocimetry and mass transfer measurements
,”
Int. J. Therm. Sci.
44
,
349
(
2005
).
31.
J.
Jiao
,
Z.
Liu
, and
Y.
Zheng
, “
Evaluations and modifications on Reynolds stress model in cyclone simulations
,”
Chem. Eng. Technol.
30
,
15
(
2007
).
32.
Z. F.
Tian
,
G. J.
Nathan
, and
Y.
Cao
, “
Numerical modelling of flows in a solar–enhanced vortex gasifier: Part 1, comparison of turbulence models
,”
Prog. Comput. Fluid. Dyn., Int. J.
15
,
114
(
2015
).
33.
C. G.
Speziale
,
S.
Sarkar
, and
T. B.
Gatski
, “
Modelling the pressure–strain correlation of turbulence: An invariant dynamical systems approach
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
227
,
245
(
1991
).
34.
B.
Launder
,
G. J.
Reece
, and
W.
Rodi
, “
Progress in the development of a Reynolds-stress turbulence closure
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
68
,
537
(
1975
).
35.
M.
Gibson
and
B.
Launder
, “
Ground effects on pressure fluctuations in the atmospheric boundary layer
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
86
,
491
(
1978
).
36.
J.
Panda
,
H.
Warrior
,
S.
Maity
,
A.
Mitra
, and
K.
Sasmal
, “
An improved model including length scale anisotropy for the pressure strain correlation of turbulence
,”
J. Fluids Eng.
139
,
044503
(
2017
).
37.
A. A.
Mishra
and
S. S.
Girimaji
, “
Toward approximating non-local dynamics in single-point pressure–strain correlation closures
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
811
,
168
(
2017
).
38.
Y.
Liu
,
M. G.
Olsen
, and
R. O.
Fox
, “
Turbulence in a microscale planar confined impinging-jets reactor
,”
Lab Chip
9
,
1110
(
2009
).
39.
M.
Icardi
,
E.
Gavi
,
D. L.
Marchisio
,
A. A.
Barresi
,
M. G.
Olsen
,
R. O.
Fox
, and
D.
Lakehal
, “
Investigation of the flow field in a three-dimensional confined impinging jets reactor by means of microPIV and DNS
,”
Chem. Eng. J.
166
,
294
(
2011
).
40.
Z.
Gao
,
J.
Han
,
Y.
Xu
,
Y.
Bao
, and
Z.
Li
, “
Particle image velocimetry (PIV) investigation of flow characteristics in confined impinging jet reactors
,”
Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.
52
,
11779
(
2013
).
41.
C. X.
Thong
,
P. A.
Kalt
,
B. B.
Dally
, and
C. H.
Birzer
, “
Flow dynamics of multi-lateral jets injection into a round pipe flow
,”
Exp. Fluids
56
,
15
(
2015
).
42.
D. L.
Marchisio
, “
Large eddy simulation of mixing and reaction in a confined impinging jets reactor
,”
Comput. Chem. Eng.
33
,
408
(
2009
).
43.
J.
Mi
,
P.
Kalt
,
G.
Nathan
, and
C.
Wong
, “
PIV measurements of a turbulent jet issuing from round sharp-edged plate
,”
Exp. Fluids
42
,
625
(
2007
).
44.
G.
Xu
and
R.
Antonia
, “
Effect of different initial conditions on a turbulent round free jet
,”
Exp. Fluids
33
,
677
(
2002
).
45.
T. C.
Lau
and
G. J.
Nathan
, “
The effect of Stokes number on particle velocity and concentration distributions in a well-characterised, turbulent, co-flowing two-phase jet
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
809
,
72
(
2016
).
46.
M.
Panao
and
J.
Delgado
, “
Toward the design of low flow-rate multijet impingement spray atomizers
,”
Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci.
58
,
170
(
2014
).
47.
N.
Bremond
and
E.
Villermaux
, “
Atomization by jet impact
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
549
,
273
(
2006
).
48.
G.
Morris
,
S.
Garimella
, and
J.
Fitzgerald
, “
Flow-field prediction in submerged and confined jet impingement using the Reynolds stress model
,”
J. Electron. Packag.
121
,
255
(
1999
).
49.
M. K.
Isman
,
P. J.
Morris
, and
M.
Can
, “
Investigation of laminar to turbulent transition phenomena effects on impingement heat transfer
,”
Heat Mass Transfer
52
,
2027
(
2016
).
50.
E.
Gavi
,
D. L.
Marchisio
, and
A. A.
Barresi
, “
CFD modelling and scale-up of confined impinging jet reactors
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
62
,
2228
(
2007
).
51.
E.
Faghani
and
S. N.
Rogak
, “
A phenomenological model of two circular turbulent jets
,”
Int. J. Engine Res.
14
,
293
(
2013
).
52.
A.
Nasr
and
J.
Lai
, “
Two parallel plane jets: Mean flow and effects of acoustic excitation
,”
Exp. Fluids
22
,
251
(
1997
).
53.
N.
Grosjean
,
L.
Graftieaux
,
M.
Michard
,
W.
Hübner
,
C.
Tropea
, and
J.
Volkert
, “
Combining LDA and PIV for turbulence measurements in unsteady swirling flows
,”
Meas. Sci. Technol.
8
,
1523
(
1997
).
54.
J.
Volkert
,
C.
Tropea
,
R.
Domann
, and
W.
Hübner
, “
Combined application of particle image velocimetry (PIV) and laser Doppler anemometry, (LDA) to swirling flows under compression
,” in
Proceedings of the 8th International Symposia on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics
(
Springer-Verlag
,
1996
), Vol. 19, pp.
1
19
.
55.
G.
Szegö
,
B.
Dally
, and
G.
Nathan
, “
Operational characteristics of a parallel jet MILD combustion burner system
,”
Combust. Flame
156
,
429
(
2009
).
56.
J.
Mi
,
F.
Wang
,
P.
Li
, and
B.
Dally
, “
Modified vitiation in a moderate or intense low-oxygen dilution (MILD) combustion furnace
,”
Energy Fuels
26
,
265
(
2011
).

Supplementary Material

You do not currently have access to this content.