Vortex dynamics of a circular cylinder controlled by a synthetic jet positioned at the back stagnation point is experimentally investigated using particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method is adopted to present the variations of the POD energy, mode, coefficient, corresponding dominant frequency, and the reconstructed spanwise vorticity. It is found that the dominant dimensionless control parameters should be the synthetic jet stroke length L0/D, where D is the diameter of the experimental circular cylinder, and the equivalent momentum coefficient Cμ. For the same stroke length L0/D=3.3, the states of the wake vortex shedding are determined by the momentum coefficient. They can be categorized into three groups summarizing all the parameters tested: antisymmetric Karman vortex shedding mode (Cμ0.027), vortex synchronization with shedding modes varying between the symmetric and antisymmetric ones (0.061Cμ0.109), and vortex synchronization with symmetric shedding mode (0.213Cμ0.378). When the symmetric shedding mode occurs, the corresponding spanwise vorticity modes show two parallel rows of half-arrowhead structures with alternate signs that are antisymmetric about the centerline. The POD modes based on the streamwise and vertical velocities also exhibit regular variations with different wake vortex shedding states.

1.
O. M.
Griffin
and
M. S.
Hall
, “
Review—Vortex shedding lock-on and flow control in bluff body wakes
,”
ASME Trans. J. Fluids Eng.
113
,
526
(
1991
).
2.
S. H.
Kim
,
J. Y.
Park
,
N.
Park
,
J. H.
Bae
, and
J. Y.
Yoo
, “
Direct numerical simulation of vortex synchronization due to small perturbations
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
634
,
61
(
2009
).
3.
A.
Ongoren
and
D.
Rockwell
, “
Flow structure from an oscillating cylinder. Part 2. Mode competition in the near wake
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
191
,
225
(
1988
).
4.
S. J.
Xu
,
Y.
Zhou
, and
M. H.
Wang
, “
A symmetric binary-vortex street behind a longitudinally oscillating cylinder
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
556
,
27
(
2006
).
5.
G.
Berkooz
,
P.
Holmes
, and
J. L.
Lumley
, “
The proper orthogonal decomposition in the analysis of turbulent flows
,”
Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech.
25
,
539
(
1993
).
6.
D.
Hilberg
,
W.
Lazik
, and
H. E.
Fiedler
, “
The application of classical POD and snapshot POD in a turbulent shear layer with periodic structures
,”
Appl. Sci. Res.
53
,
283
(
1994
).
7.
A. S.
Cruz
,
L.
David
,
J.
Pécheux
, and
A.
Texier
, “
Characterization by proper-orthogonal-decomposition of the passive controlled wake flow downstream of a half cylinder
,”
Exp. Fluids
39
,
730
(
2005
).
8.
J. L.
Lumley
, “
The structure of inhomogeneous turbulent flows
,” in
Atmospheric Turbulence and Radio Wave Propagation
, edited by
A. M.
Yaglom
and
V. I.
Tatarski
(
Nauka
,
Moscow
,
1967
), p.
166
.
9.
L.
Sirovich
, “
Turbulence and the dynamics of coherent structures. Part I: Coherent structures
,”
Q. Appl. Math.
45
,
561
(
1987
).
10.
J.
Kostas
,
J.
Soria
, and
M. S.
Chong
, “
A comparison between snapshot POD analysis of PIV velocity and vorticity data
,”
Exp. Fluids
38
,
146
(
2005
).
11.
J.
Kostas
,
J.
Soria
, and
M. S.
Chong
, “
Particle image velocimetry measurements of a backward-facing step flow
,”
Exp. Fluids
33
,
838
(
2002
).
12.
B.
Patte-Rouland
,
G.
Lalizel
,
J.
Moreau
, and
E.
Rouland
, “
Flow analysis of an annular jet by particle image velocimetry and proper orthogonal decomposition
,”
Meas. Sci. Technol.
12
,
1404
(
2001
).
13.
M.
Fogleman
,
J.
Lumley
,
D.
Rempfer
, and
D.
Haworth
, “
Application of the proper orthogonal decomposition to datasets of internal combustion engine flows
,”
J. Turbul.
5
,
N23
(
2004
).
14.
P.
Druault
,
P.
Guibert
, and
F.
Alizon
, “
Use of proper orthogonal decomposition for time interpolation from PIV data. Application to the cycle-to-cycle variation analysis of in-cylinder engine flows
,”
Exp. Fluids
39
,
1009
(
2005
).
15.
D.
Venturi
, “
On proper orthogonal decomposition of randomly perturbed fields with applications to flow past a cylinder and natural convection over a horizontal plate
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
559
,
215
(
2006
).
16.
K. E.
Meyer
,
J. M.
Pedersen
, and
O.
Özcan
, “
A turbulent jet in crossflow analysed with proper orthogonal decomposition
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
583
,
199
(
2007
).
17.
X.
Ma
,
G. S.
-
Karamanos
, and
G. E.
Karniadakis
, “
Dynamics and low-dimensionality of a turbulent near wake
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
410
,
29
(
2000
).
18.
X.
Ma
,
G. E.
Karniadakis
,
H.
Park
, and
M.
Gharib
, “
DPIV-driven flow simulation: A new computational paradigm
,”
Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A
459
,
547
(
2003
).
19.
A.
Dipankar
,
T. K.
Sengupta
, and
S. B.
Talla
, “
Suppression of vortex shedding behind a circular cylinder by another control cylinder at low Reynolds numbers
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
573
,
171
(
2007
).
20.
R.
Perrin
,
M.
Braza
,
E.
Cid
,
S.
Cazin
,
A.
Barthet
,
A.
Sevrain
,
C.
Mockett
, and
F.
Thiele
, “
Obtaining phase averaged turbulence properties in the near wake of a circular cylinder at high Reynolds number using POD
,”
Exp. Fluids
43
,
341
(
2007
).
21.
E.
Konstantinidis
,
S.
Balabani
, and
M.
Yianneskis
, “
Bimodal vortex shedding in a perturbed cylinder wake
,”
Phys. Fluids
19
,
011701
(
2007
).
22.
L.
Kourentis
and
E.
Konstantinidis
, “
Uncovering large-scale coherent structures in natural and forced turbulent wakes by combining PIV, POD and FTLE
,”
15th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics
, Lisbon, Portugal, 5–8 July
2010
.
23.
S. G.
Siegel
,
J.
Seidel
,
C.
Fagley
,
D. M.
Luchtenburg
,
K.
Cohen
, and
T.
Mclaughlin
, “
Low-dimensional modelling of a transient cylinder wake using double proper orthogonal decomposition
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
610
,
1
(
2008
).
24.
B. P.
Epps
and
A. H.
Techet
, “
An error threshold criterion for singular value decomposition modes extracted from PIV data
,”
Exp. Fluids
48
,
355
(
2009
).
25.
A.
Glezer
and
M.
Amitay
, “
Synthetic jets
,”
Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech.
34
,
503
(
2002
).
26.
P. F.
Zhang
,
J. J.
Wang
, and
L. H.
Feng
, “
Review of zero-net-mass-flux jet and its application in separation flow control
,”
Sci. China, Ser. E: Technol. Sci.
51
,
1315
(
2008
).
27.
M.
Amitay
,
A.
Honohan
,
M.
Trautman
, and
A.
Glezer
, “
Modification of the aerodynamic characteristics of bluff bodies using fluidic actuators
,” AIAA Paper No. 97-2004,
1997
.
28.
M.
Amitay
,
B. L.
Smith
, and
A.
Glezer
, “
Aerodynamic flow control using synthetic jet technology
,” AIAA Paper No. 98-0208,
1998
.
29.
J.
Tensi
,
I.
Boué
,
F.
Paillé
, and
G.
Dury
, “
Modification of the wake behind a circular cylinder by using synthetic jets
,”
J. Visualization
5
,
37
(
2002
).
30.
L. H.
Feng
,
J. J.
Wang
, and
C. J.
Xu
, “
Experimental verification of a novel actuator signal for efficient synthetic jet (in Chinese)
,”
J. Exp. Fluid Mech.
22
,
6
(
2008
).
31.
L. H.
Feng
and
J. J.
Wang
, “
Circular cylinder vortex-synchronization control with a synthetic jet positioned at the rear stagnation point
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
662
,
232
(
2010
).
32.
A.
Glezer
,
Z.
Kadioglu
, and
A. J.
Pearlstein
, “
Development of an extended proper orthogonal decomposition and its application to a time periodically forced plane mixing layer
,”
Phys. Fluids A
1
,
1363
(
1989
).
33.
P. J.
Diamessis
,
R.
Gurka
, and
A.
Liberzon
, “
Spatial characterization of vortical structures and internal waves in a stratified turbulent wake using proper orthogonal decomposition
,”
Phys. Fluids
22
,
086601
(
2010
).
34.
J. J.
Wang
,
L. H.
Feng
, and
C. J.
Xu
, “
Experimental investigations on separation control and flow structure around a circular cylinder with synthetic jet
,”
Sci. China, Ser. E: Technol. Sci.
50
,
550
(
2007
).
35.
J. J.
Wang
,
R. Q.
Shan
,
C.
Zhang
, and
L. H.
Feng
, “
Experimental investigation of a novel two-dimensional synthetic jet
,”
Eur. J. Mech. B/Fluids
29
,
342
(
2010
).
36.
S.
Zhong
,
M.
Jabbal
,
H.
Tang
,
L.
Garcillan
,
F.
Guo
,
N.
Wood
, and
C.
Warsop
, “
Toward the design of synthetic jet actuators for full scale flight conditions. Part 1: The fluid mechanics of synthetic jet actuators
,”
Flow, Turbul. Combust.
78
,
283
(
2007
).
37.
B. L.
Smith
and
A.
Glezer
, “
The formation and evolution of synthetic jets
,”
Phys. Fluids
10
,
2281
(
1998
).
38.
S.
Liu
and
S.
Fu
, “
Regimes of vortex shedding from an in-line oscillating circular cylinder in the uniform flow
,”
Acta Mech. Sin.
19
,
118
(
2003
).
39.
T.
Nishihara
,
S.
Kaneko
, and
T.
Watanabe
, “
Characteristics of fluid dynamic forces acting on a circular cylinder oscillated in the streamwise direction and its wake patterns
,”
J. Fluids Struct.
20
,
505
(
2005
).
40.
E.
Konstantinidis
and
S.
Balabani
, “
Symmetric vortex shedding in the near wake of a circular cylinder due to streamwise perturbations
,”
J. Fluids Struct.
23
,
1047
(
2007
).
41.
J. M.
Shuster
and
D. R.
Smith
, “
Experimental study of the formation and scaling of a round synthetic jet
,”
Phys. Fluids
19
,
045109
(
2007
).
42.
E.
Konstantinidis
and
D.
Bouris
, “
Effect of nonharmonic forcing on bluff-body vortex dynamics
,”
Phys. Rev. E
79
,
045303
(
2009
).
You do not currently have access to this content.