A hydrothermal method of catalytic nanotube synthesis has been shown to produce high-aspect-ratio, multiwall, capped carbon nanotubes, which are hollow and contain a high-pressure encapsulated aqueous multicomponent fluid displaying clearly segregated liquid and gas by means of well-defined curved menisci. Thermal experiments are performed using electron irradiation as a means of heating the contents of individual nanotubes in the high vacuum of a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The experiments clearly demonstrate that TEM can be used to resolve fluid interface motion in nanochannels. Good wettability of the inner carbon walls by the water-based fluid is shown. Fully reversible interface dynamic phenomena are visualized, and an attempt is made to explain the origin of this fine-scale motion. Experimental evidence is presented of nanometer-scale liquid films rapidly moving fluid along the nanochannel walls with velocities 0.5 μm/s or higher.

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