The marine environment is experiencing significant impacts due to increased shipping traffic. The maritime industry must develop a low-carbon shipping strategy to comply with the increasingly strict emission regulations. This paper comprehensively reviews various decarbonization technologies, including navigation systems, hull design configuration, propulsion and power systems, and alternative fuels. By comparing a wide range of technologies in terms of their emission reduction potential and economic feasibility, this paper is intended to provide a full picture of alternative methods for future green shipping. Alternative fuels and hybrid power systems are found to have high potential for reducing carbon emissions and enhancing sustainability. The type of ship, its design configurations, and operation parameters affect the performance of optimal weather routing systems. With the current maritime policy and technological development, the transition from traditional marine fuel to liquefied natural gas can act as a temporary solution and provide significant decarbonization for maritime transportation. The emission reduction potential can be further enhanced with alternative fuels combined with hybrid power systems with high control flexibility.

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