Room temperature liquid metal activated Al-H2O reaction is a valuable method of achieving controllable, instant hydrogen generation. It avoids problems related to degradation of raw materials. In this study, the Ga-In-Sn-Bi alloy-activated Al-H2O reaction was demonstrated to be rate-stable with a hydrogen productivity of 92% and therefore superior to similar reactions activated by Ga-In and Ga-In-Sn alloys. To reveal the relevant activation mechanisms, the electrode potentials of three types of liquid metal alloys were tested. The effects of various liquid metal alloy compositions on hydrogen generation performance were determined via composition analysis and elemental characterization of the used reaction materials. The effects of several reaction conditions on hydrogen generation performance were evaluated. The reaction activation energy and by-product separation were also studied. It is feasible to provide a stable supply of hydrogen to a fuel cell and produce an output power of 0.73 W using a 3 g Al plate. Overall, the room-temperature Ga-In-Sn-Bi alloy-activated Al-H2O reaction can achieve real-time, on-demand hydrogen generation. This makes it a preferred choice to supply hydrogen to fuel cells.

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