Distributed generation (DG) sources are becoming more popular nowadays because of their technoeconomic and environmental benefits. These benefits are maximized only when the DG sources are properly planned and installed in the distribution networks. Several studies have been carried out in this field considering various objectives and constraints, for single as well as multiple DG placement and sizing. In this paper, an optimization methodology based on particle swarm optimization is used for the optimal planning of multiple DG sources in a meshed distribution network. The solution consists of the possible DG locations, DG capacities, and its operating power factor. The objectives considered are the improvement of reliability indices namely the system average interruption frequency index and system average interruption duration index, reduction of real power loss, and voltage profile improvement. Unlike other works, reliability evaluation is done considering many realistic constraints and it is used as one of the criteria for DG planning. Reliability indices are evaluated using the encoded Markov cut set algorithm. The real power loss and the voltage index are obtained by means of a simple load flow technique. The stochastic nature of the renewable DG output and the load are taken into account during the reliability evaluation along with islanding probability. The optimal planning of DG sources is done for bus 4 of the Roy billinton test system consisting of seven feeders, 102 nodes, and 106 components. Optimal planning for solar based DG sources is done considering three different load models namely residential, commercial, and mixed load.

1.
T.
Ackermann
,
G.
Andersson
, and
L.
Soder
, “
Distributed generation: A definition
,”
Electr. Power Syst. Res.
57
,
195
(
2001
).
2.
W.
El-Khattam
and
M. M. A.
Salama
, “
Distributed generation technologies, definitions and benefits
,”
Electr. Power Syst. Res.
71
,
119
(
2004
).
3.
T.
Adefarati
and
R. C.
Bansal
, “
Integration of renewable distributed generators into the distribution system: A review
,”
IET Renewable Power Gener.
10
(
7
),
873
(
2016
).
4.
M. M.
Elnashar
,
R.
El Shatshat
, and
M. M. A.
Salam
, “
Optimum siting and sizing of a large distributed generator in a mesh connected system
,”
Electr. Power Syst. Res.
80
,
690
(
2010
).
5.
A.
Ameli
,
S.
Bahrami
,
F.
Khazaeli
, and
M.-R.
Haghifam
, “
A multiobjective particle swarm optimization for sizing and placement of DGs from DG owner's and distribution company's Viewpoints
,”
IEEE Trans. Power Delivery
29
(
4
),
1831
(
2014
).
6.
A.
Colmenar-Santos
,
C.
Reino-Rio
,
D.
Borge-Diez
, and
E.
Collado-Fernández
, “
Distributed generation: A review of factors that can contribute most to achieve a scenario of DG units embedded in the new distribution networks
,”
Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev.
59
,
1130
(
2016
).
7.
O. D.
Melgar-Dominguez
,
M.
Pourakbari-Kasmaei
, and
J. R. S.
Mantovani
, “
Adaptive robust short–term planning of electrical distribution systems considering siting and sizing of renewable energy based DG units
,”
IEEE Trans. Sustainable Energy
10
(
4
),
158
(
2019
).
8.
A.
Foroughi Nematollahi
,
A.
Rahiminejad
,
B.
Vahidi
,
H.
Askarian
, and
A.
Safaei1
, “
A new evolutionary-analytical two-step optimization method for optimal wind turbine allocation considering maximum capacity
,”
J. Renewable Sustainable Energy
10
,
043312
(
2018
).
9.
J.
Mitra
,
M. R.
Vallem
, and
C.
Singh
, “
Optimal deployment of distributed generation using a reliability criterion
,”
IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl.
52
(
3
),
1989
(
2016
).
10.
A. K.
Bohre
,
G.
Agnihotri
, and
M.
Dubey
, “
Optimal sizing and sitting of DG with load models using soft computing techniques in practical distribution system
,”
IET Gener., Transm. Distrib.
10
(
11
),
2606
(
2016
).
11.
H.
Zhan
,
C.
Wang
,
Y.
Wang
 et al, “
Relay protection coordination integrated optimal placement and sizing of distributed generation sources in distribution networks
,”
IEEE Trans. Smart Grid
7
(
1
),
55
(
2016
).
12.
M.
Rahmani-andebili
, “
Distributed generation placement planning modeling feeder's failure rate and customer's load type
,”
IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron.
63
(
3
),
1598
(
2016
).
13.
P.
Prakash
and
D. K.
Khatod
, “
Optimal sizing and siting techniques for distributed generation in distribution systems: A review
,”
Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev.
57
,
111
(
2016
).
14.
A.
Ehsan
and
Q.
Yang
, “
Optimal integration and planning of renewable distributed generation in the power distribution networks: A review of analytical techniques
,”
Appl. Energy
210
,
44
(
2018
).
15.
A.
Rezaee Jordehi
, “
Allocation of distributed generation units in electric power systems: A review
,”
Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev.
56
,
893
(
2016
).
16.
R.
Billinton
and
R. N.
Allan
,
Reliability Evaluation of Power Systems
(
Plenum
,
New York
,
1996
).
17.
J.
Kennedy
and
R. C.
Eberhart
, “
Particle swarm optimization
,” in
Proceedings of the 1995 IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks, Perth, Australia
, 1942 (
1995
).
18.
M.
Al-Muhaini
and
G. T.
Heydt
, “
A novel method for evaluating future power distributed system reliability
,”
IEEE Trans. Power Syst.
28
(
3
),
3018
(
2013
).
19.
M.
Al-Muhaini
and
G. T.
Heydt
, “
Evaluating future power distributed system reliability including distributed generation
,”
IEEE Trans. Power Delivery
28
(
4
),
2264
(
2013
).
20.
J.-H.
Teng
, “
A direct approach for distribution system load flow solutions
,”
IEEE Trans. Power Delivery
18
(
3
),
882
(
2003
).
21.
J.-H.
Teng
, “
Modelling distributed generations in three-phase distribution load flow
,”
IET Gener., Transm. Distrib.
2
(
3
),
330
(
2008
).
22.
R. N.
Allan
,
R.
Billington
,
I.
Sjarief
,
L.
Goel
 et al, “
A reliability test system for educational purposes—Basic distribution system data and results
,”
IEEE Trans. Power Syst.
6
(
2
),
813
(
1991
).
23.
National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL),
https://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/old_data/nsrdb/1991-2010/ for National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB),
1991
2010
.
24.
A.
Jonnavithula
, “
Composite system reliability evaluation using sequential Monte Carlo simulation
,” Ph.D. dissertation (
Department of Electrical Engineering
, Saskatoon, SK, Canada,
1997
).
You do not currently have access to this content.