We review recent determinations of the Boltzmann constant kB and the differences TT90 that used cylindrical acoustic gas thermometry (c-AGT). These determinations measured the acoustic resonance frequencies of argon gas enclosed by metal-walled, cylindrical cavities. (Here, T is the thermodynamic temperature and T90 is the temperature measured on the International Temperature Scale of 1990, ITS-90.) In the range 234–303 K, the standard uncertainty of c-AGT ranges from 1.9 × 10−6 T to 2.6 × 10−6 T. This uncertainty is much smaller than the errors in ITS-90; therefore, c-AGT can help improve ITS-90. Moreover, we are extending c-AGT up to 1358 K. With increasing temperatures, c-AGT becomes advantageous relative to AGT based on quasi-spherical cavities because long cylindrical cavities (1) naturally fit into cylindrical heat pipes or multi-shelled thermostats; (2) provide the immersion required by transfer temperature standards, such as long-stemmed platinum resistance thermometers; and (3) have more useful, low-frequency acoustic resonances. In preparation for high-temperature c-AGT, we identified suitable materials for fabricating cylindrical cavities and we developed techniques for measuring acoustic resonance frequencies using sources and detectors outside the high-temperature thermostat. We also considered alternative test gases and optimal dimensions of cavities.

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