The redefinition of the kelvin has increased focus on thermometry techniques that use the newly fixed value of the Boltzmann constant to realize thermodynamic temperature. One such technique that has advanced considerably in recent years is refractive-index gas thermometry. Generalized as refractive-index gas metrology (RIGM), this also includes a range of applications outside of temperature realizations, such as pressure standards and measurements of the physical properties of gases. Here, the current data situation in the field is reviewed, encompassing the latest developments and remaining challenges, in order to suggest possible approaches for reducing RIGM uncertainties and improving RIGM applications. New analyses of existing experimental literature data are presented for the second density virial coefficient Bρ of helium, neon, argon, and nitrogen; the third density virial coefficient Cρ of nitrogen; and the third dielectric virial coefficient Cε of helium, neon, and argon. A need is identified for more accurate reference-quality datasets to be measured or calculated in several areas, with robust uncertainty budgets, to support future RIGM advancements. The most urgent of these are the bulk modulus of copper; thermodynamic accuracy of the International Temperature Scale of 1990; molar optical refractivity AR of neon, argon, and nitrogen; diamagnetic susceptibility χ0 of neon and argon; second density virial coefficient Bρ of argon; third dielectric virial coefficient Cε of helium, neon, and argon; and third optical refractivity virial coefficient CR of helium and neon.
Perspective on the Refractive-Index Gas Metrology Data Landscape
Note: This paper is part of the Special Topic, Fundamental Constants: Realization of the Kelvin.
Patrick M. C. Rourke; Perspective on the Refractive-Index Gas Metrology Data Landscape. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 1 September 2021; 50 (3): 033104. https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0055412
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