The temperature variation of the fractionation of oxygen in exchange reactions between dissolved carbonate and water and between calcite and water and calculated on theoretical grounds, and checked experimentally. In the course of the experiments it was necessary to investigate several methods of decomposing calcium carbonate to carbon dioxide for mass spectrometer analysis. A method was developed for growing calcium carbonate from solution with the same isotopic composition as the carbonate shells of organisms produced at the same temperature from water of the same isotopic composition, and the results of these experiments at various temperatures are expressed in an equation relating the temperature of formation with the isotopic composition of the calcium carbonate and of the water.

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