Exciplexes are excited-state complexes formed as a result of partial charge transfer from the donor to the acceptor species when one moiety of the donor–acceptor pair is electronically excited. The arene–amine exciplex formed between oligo-(p-phenylene) (OPP) and triethylamine (TEA) is of interest in the catalytic photoreduction of CO2 because it can compete with complete electron transfer to the OPP catalyst. Therefore, formation of the exciplex can hinder the generation of a radical anion OPP·− necessary for subsequent CO2 reduction. We report an implementation of a workflow automating quantum-chemistry calculations that generate and characterize an ensemble of structures to represent this exciplex state. We use FireWorks, Pymatgen, and Custodian Python packages for high-throughput ensemble generation. The workflow includes time-dependent density functional theory optimization, verification of excited-state minima, and exciplex characterization with natural transition orbitals, exciton analysis, excited-state Mulliken charges, and energy decomposition analysis. Fluorescence spectra computed for these ensembles using Boltzmann-weighted contributions of each structure agree better with experiment than our previous calculations based on a single representative exciplex structure [Kron et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 126, 2319–2329 (2022)]. The ensemble description of the exciplex state also reproduces an experimentally observed red shift of the emission spectrum of [OPP-4–TEA]* relative to [OPP-3–TEA]*. The workflow developed here streamlines otherwise labor-intensive calculations that would require significant user involvement and intervention.
Simulating excited-state complex ensembles: Fluorescence and solvatochromism in amine-arene exciplexes
Abhilash Patra, Anna I. Krylov, Shaama Mallikarjun Sharada; Simulating excited-state complex ensembles: Fluorescence and solvatochromism in amine-arene exciplexes. J. Chem. Phys. 14 August 2023; 159 (6): 064101. https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0158061
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