We present a molecular geometry optimization algorithm based on the gradient-enhanced universal kriging (GEUK) formalism with ab initio prior mean functions, which incorporates prior physical knowledge to surrogate-based optimization. In this formalism, we have demonstrated the advantage of allowing the prior mean functions to be adaptive during geometry optimization over a pre-fixed choice of prior functions. Our implementation is general and flexible in two senses. First, the optimizations on the surrogate surface can be in both Cartesian coordinates and curvilinear coordinates. We explore four representative curvilinear coordinates in this work, including the redundant Coulombic coordinates, the redundant internal coordinates, the non-redundant delocalized internal coordinates, and the non-redundant hybrid delocalized internal Z-matrix coordinates. We show that our GEUK optimizer accelerates geometry optimization as compared to conventional non-surrogate-based optimizers in internal coordinates. We further showcase the power of the GEUK with on-the-fly adaptive priors for efficient optimizations of challenging molecules (Criegee intermediates) with a high-accuracy electronic structure method (the coupled-cluster method). Second, we present the usage of internal coordinates under the complete curvilinear scheme. A complete curvilinear scheme performs both surrogate potential-energy surface (PES) fitting and structure optimization entirely in the curvilinear coordinates. Our benchmark indicates that the complete curvilinear scheme significantly reduces the cost of structure minimization on the surrogate compared to the incomplete curvilinear scheme, which fits the surrogate PES in curvilinear coordinates partially and optimizes a structure in Cartesian coordinates through curvilinear coordinates via the chain rule.

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