Allostery is an important regulatory mechanism of protein functions. Among allosteric proteins, certain protein structure types are more observed. However, how allosteric regulation depends on protein topology remains elusive. In this study, we extracted protein topology graphs at the fold level and found that known allosteric proteins mainly contain multiple domains or subunits and allosteric sites reside more often between two or more domains of the same fold type. Only a small fraction of fold–fold combinations are observed in allosteric proteins, and homo-fold–fold combinations dominate. These analyses imply that the locations of allosteric sites including cryptic ones depend on protein topology. We further developed TopoAlloSite, a novel method that uses the kernel support vector machine to predict the location of allosteric sites on the overall protein topology based on the subgraph-matching kernel. TopoAlloSite successfully predicted known cryptic allosteric sites in several allosteric proteins like phosphopantothenoylcysteine synthetase, spermidine synthase, and sirtuin 6, demonstrating its power in identifying cryptic allosteric sites without performing long molecular dynamics simulations or large-scale experimental screening. Our study demonstrates that protein topology largely determines how its function can be allosterically regulated, which can be used to find new druggable targets and locate potential binding sites for rational allosteric drug design.
How protein topology controls allosteric regulations
Note: This paper is part of the JCP Special Topic on New Views of Allostery.
Juan Xie, Gaoxiang Pan, Yibo Li, Luhua Lai; How protein topology controls allosteric regulations. J. Chem. Phys. 14 March 2023; 158 (10): 105102. https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0138279
Download citation file: