Although azulene’s anomalous fluorescence originating from S2 rather than from S1 is a textbook example for the violation of Kasha’s rule, an understanding of the underlying processes is still a subject of investigation. Here, we use action-based coherent two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES) to measure a single Liouville-space response pathway from S0 via S1 to the S2 state of azulene. We directly compare this sequential excitation in the liquid phase detecting S2 fluorescence and in a molecular beam detecting photoionized cations, using the S2 anomalous emission to our advantage. We complement the 2DES study with pump–probe measurements of S1 excitation dynamics, including vibrational relaxation and passage through a conical intersection. A direct comparison of the liquid and gas phase allows us to assess the effect of the solvent and the interplay of intra- and intermolecular energy relaxation.
Direct comparison of molecular-beam vs liquid-phase pump–probe and two-dimensional spectroscopy on the example of azulene
Note: This paper is part of the JCP Special Topic on Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy.
Hans-Peter Solowan, Pavel Malý, Tobias Brixner; Direct comparison of molecular-beam vs liquid-phase pump–probe and two-dimensional spectroscopy on the example of azulene. J. Chem. Phys. 28 July 2022; 157 (4): 044201. https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0088365
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