Confocal optical microscopy and tip-enhanced optical microscopy are applied to characterize the defect distributions in chemical vapor deposition-grown WS2 monolayer triangles qualitatively and quantitatively. The presence of defects in individual monolayer WS2 triangles is revealed with diffraction-limited spatial resolution in their photoluminescence (PL) images, from which the inhomogeneous defect density distribution is calculated, showing an inverse relationship to the PL intensity. The defect-related surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) effect is investigated by depositing a thin copper phthalocyanine layer (5 nm) as the probe molecule on the monolayer WS2 triangles surface. Higher SERS enhancement effects are observed at the defect-rich areas. Furthermore, tip-enhanced optical measurements are performed, which can reveal morphologically defected areas invisible in the confocal optical measurements. Furthermore, the area with high defect density appears brighter than the low-defected area in the tip-enhanced optical measurements, which are different from the observation in the confocal optical measurements. The underlying reasons are attributed to the near-field enhancement of the defect exciton emission induced by the optically excited tip and to an improved coupling efficiency between the tip-generated near-field with the altered dipole moment orientation at the local defect.
Inhomogeneous defect distribution of triangular WS2 monolayer revealed by surface-enhanced and tip-enhanced Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy
Peng Miao, Yu-Ting Chen, Lin Pan, Anke Horneber, Katharina Greulich, Thomas Chassé, Heiko Peisert, Pierre-Michel Adam, Ping Xu, Alfred Meixner, Dai Zhang; Inhomogeneous defect distribution of triangular WS2 monolayer revealed by surface-enhanced and tip-enhanced Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy. J. Chem. Phys. 21 January 2022; 156 (3): 034702. https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0078113
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