Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) is a well-known technique to study the relaxation times of systems at equilibrium. In many soft matter systems, we actually have to consider non-equilibrium or non-stationary situations. We discuss here the principles, the signal processing techniques we developed, based on regularized inverse Laplace transform, sliding with time, and the light scattering signal acquisition, which enable us to use DLS experiments in this general situation. In this article, we show how to obtain such a time-Laplace analysis. We claim that this method can be adapted to numerous DLS experiments dealing with non-equilibrium systems so as to extract the non-stationary distribution of relaxation times. To prove that, we test this time-Laplace method on three different non-equilibrium processes or systems investigated by means of the DLS technique: the cooling kinetics of a colloidal particle solution, the sol–gel transition and the internal dynamics of a living cell nucleus.
Immortal cell line used in scientific research. It is the oldest and most commonly used human cell line. This line derived from cervical cancer cells.