Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of complex electrochemical systems, such as ionic liquid supercapacitors, are increasingly including the constant potential method (CPM) to model conductive electrodes at a specified potential difference, but the inclusion of CPM can be computationally expensive. We demonstrate the computational savings available in CPM MD simulations of ionic liquid supercapacitors when the usual non-periodic slab geometry is replaced with fully periodic boundary conditions. We show how a doubled cell approach, previously used in non-CPM MD simulations of charged interfaces, can be used to enable fully periodic CPM MD simulations. Using either a doubled cell approach or a finite field approach previously reported by others, fully periodic CPM MD simulations produce comparable results to the traditional slab geometry simulations with a nearly double speedup in computational time. Indeed, these savings can offset the additional cost of the CPM algorithm, resulting in periodic CPM MD simulations that are computationally competitive with the non-periodic, fixed charge equivalent simulations for the ionic liquid supercapacitors studied here.
Fully periodic, computationally efficient constant potential molecular dynamics simulations of ionic liquid supercapacitors
Shern R. Tee, Debra J. Searles; Fully periodic, computationally efficient constant potential molecular dynamics simulations of ionic liquid supercapacitors. J. Chem. Phys. 14 May 2022; 156 (18): 184101. https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0086986
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