Quantifying charge-state transition energy levels of impurities in semiconductors is critical to understanding and engineering their optoelectronic properties for applications ranging from solar photovoltaics to infrared lasers. While these transition levels can be measured and calculated accurately, such efforts are time-consuming and more rapid prediction methods would be beneficial. Here, we significantly reduce the time typically required to predict impurity transition levels using multi-fidelity datasets and a machine learning approach employing features based on elemental properties and impurity positions. We use transition levels obtained from low-fidelity (i.e., local-density approximation or generalized gradient approximation) density functional theory (DFT) calculations, corrected using a recently proposed modified band alignment scheme, which well-approximates transition levels from high-fidelity DFT (i.e., hybrid HSE06). The model fit to the large multi-fidelity database shows improved accuracy compared to the models trained on the more limited high-fidelity values. Crucially, in our approach, when using the multi-fidelity data, high-fidelity values are not required for model training, significantly reducing the computational cost required for training the model. Our machine learning model of transition levels has a root mean squared (mean absolute) error of 0.36 (0.27) eV vs high-fidelity hybrid functional values when averaged over 14 semiconductor systems from the II–VI and III–V families. As a guide for use on other systems, we assessed the model on simulated data to show the expected accuracy level as a function of bandgap for new materials of interest. Finally, we use the model to predict a complete space of impurity charge-state transition levels in all zinc blende III–V and II–VI systems.
Machine learning for impurity charge-state transition levels in semiconductors from elemental properties using multi-fidelity datasets
Maciej P. Polak, Ryan Jacobs, Arun Mannodi-Kanakkithodi, Maria K. Y. Chan, Dane Morgan; Machine learning for impurity charge-state transition levels in semiconductors from elemental properties using multi-fidelity datasets. J. Chem. Phys. 21 March 2022; 156 (11): 114110. https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0083877
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