We extend our linear-scaling approach for the calculation of Hartree–Fock exchange energy using localized in situ optimized orbitals [Dziedzic et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 214103 (2013)] to leverage massive parallelism. Our approach has been implemented in the onetep (Order-N Electronic Total Energy Package) density functional theory framework, which employs a basis of non-orthogonal generalized Wannier functions (NGWFs) to achieve linear scaling with system size while retaining controllable near-complete-basis-set accuracy. For the calculation of Hartree–Fock exchange, we use a resolution-of-identity approach, where an auxiliary basis set of truncated spherical waves is used to fit products of NGWFs. The fact that the electrostatic potential of spherical waves (SWs) is known analytically, combined with the use of a distance-based cutoff for exchange interactions, leads to a calculation cost that scales linearly with the system size. Our new implementation, which we describe in detail, combines distributed memory parallelism (using the message passing interface) with shared memory parallelism (OpenMP threads) to efficiently utilize numbers of central processing unit cores comparable to, or exceeding, the number of atoms in the system. We show how the use of multiple time-memory trade-offs substantially increases performance, enabling our approach to achieve superlinear strong parallel scaling in many cases and excellent, although sublinear, parallel scaling otherwise. We demonstrate that in scenarios with low available memory, which preclude or limit the use of time-memory trade-offs, the performance degradation of our algorithm is graceful. We show that, crucially, linear scaling with system size is maintained in all cases. We demonstrate the practicability of our approach by performing a set of fully converged production calculations with a hybrid functional on large imogolite nanotubes up to over 1400 atoms. We finish with a brief study of how the employed approximations (exchange cutoff and the quality of the SW basis) affect the calculation walltime and the accuracy of the obtained results.

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