Pressure plays essential roles in chemistry by altering structures and controlling chemical reactions. The extreme-pressure polarizable continuum model (XP-PCM) is an emerging method with an efficient quantum mechanical description of small- and medium-sized molecules at high pressure (on the order of GPa). However, its application to large molecular systems was previously hampered by a CPU computation bottleneck: the Pauli repulsion potential unique to XP-PCM requires the evaluation of a large number of electric field integrals, resulting in significant computational overhead compared to the gas-phase or standard-pressure polarizable continuum model calculations. Here, we exploit advances in graphical processing units (GPUs) to accelerate the XP-PCM-integral evaluations. This enables high-pressure quantum chemistry simulation of proteins that used to be computationally intractable. We benchmarked the performance using 18 small proteins in aqueous solutions. Using a single GPU, our method evaluates the XP-PCM free energy of a protein with over 500 atoms and 4000 basis functions within half an hour. The time taken by the XP-PCM-integral evaluation is typically 1% of the time taken for a gas-phase density functional theory (DFT) on the same system. The overall XP-PCM calculations require less computational effort than that for their gas-phase counterpart due to the improved convergence of self-consistent field iterations. Therefore, the description of the high-pressure effects with our GPU-accelerated XP-PCM is feasible for any molecule tractable for gas-phase DFT calculation. We have also validated the accuracy of our method on small molecules whose properties under high pressure are known from experiments or previous theoretical studies.
Quantum chemistry for molecules at extreme pressure on graphical processing units: Implementation of extreme-pressure polarizable continuum model
Ariel Gale, Eugen Hruska, Fang Liu; Quantum chemistry for molecules at extreme pressure on graphical processing units: Implementation of extreme-pressure polarizable continuum model. J. Chem. Phys. 28 June 2021; 154 (24): 244103. https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0056480
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