A seminumerical algorithm capable of performing large-scale (time-dependent) density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations to extract excitation energies and other ground-state and excited-state properties is outlined. The algorithm uses seminumerical integral techniques for evaluating Coulomb and exchange parts for a set of density matrices as occurring in standard TD-DFT or similar methods for the evaluation of vibrational frequencies. A suitable optimized de-aliasing procedure is introduced. The latter does not depend on further auxiliary quantities and retains the symmetry of a given density matrix. The algorithm is self-contained and applicable to any orbital basis set available without the need for further auxiliary basis sets or optimized de-aliasing grids. Relativistic two-component excited-state TD-DFT calculations are reported for the first time using the developed seminumerical algorithm for standard and local hybrid density functional approximations. Errors are compared with the widely used “resolution of the identity” (RI) approximations for Coulomb (RI-J) and exchange integrals (RI-K). The fully seminumerical algorithm does not exhibit an enlarged error for standard DFT functionals compared to the RI approximation. For the more involved local hybrid functionals and within strong external fields, accuracy is even considerably improved.
An improved seminumerical Coulomb and exchange algorithm for properties and excited states in modern density functional theory
Christof Holzer; An improved seminumerical Coulomb and exchange algorithm for properties and excited states in modern density functional theory. J. Chem. Phys. 14 November 2020; 153 (18): 184115. https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0022755
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