Using electron spectroscopy, we investigated the nanoplasma formation process generated in xenon clusters by intense soft x-ray free electron laser (FEL) pulses. We found clear FEL intensity dependence of electron spectra. Multistep ionization and subsequent ionization frustration features are evident for the low FEL-intensity region, and the thermal electron emission emerges at the high FEL intensity. The present FEL intensity dependence of the electron spectra is well addressed by the frustration parameter introduced by Arbeiter and Fennel [New J. Phys. 13, 053022 (2011)].
Electron spectroscopic study of nanoplasma formation triggered by intense soft x-ray pulses
Akinobu Niozu, Naomichi Yokono, Toshiyuki Nishiyama, Hironobu Fukuzawa, Tomohiro Sakurazawa, Kazuhiro Matsuda, Tsukasa Takanashi, Daehyun You, Yiwen Li, Taishi Ono, Thomas Gaumnitz, Markus Schöffler, Sven Grundmann, Shin-ichi Wada, Paolo Carpeggiani, Wei Qing Xu, Xiao Jing Liu, Shigeki Owada, Kensuke Tono, Tadashi Togashi, Makina Yabashi, Nikolai V. Kryzhevoi, Kirill Gokhberg, Alexander I. Kuleff, Lorenz S. Cederbaum, Kiyoshi Ueda, Kiyonobu Nagaya; Electron spectroscopic study of nanoplasma formation triggered by intense soft x-ray pulses. J. Chem. Phys. 14 November 2019; 151 (18): 184305. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5115053
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