A static deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance (2HNMR) technique (magnetic field, B = 7.05 T) was employed to monitor the thermotropic lamellar phase of the anhydrous 1:1 mixture sample of octyl-b-D-glucoside (βOG) and that of partially deuterium labelled at the alpha position on the chain, i.e.,βOG-d2 In the absence of an electric field, the 2H NMR spectrum of the mixture gives a typical quadrupolar doublet representing the aligned lamellar phase. Upon heating to beyond the clearing temperature at 112 °C, this splitting converts to a single line expected for an isotropic phase. Simultaneous application of magnetic and electric fields (E = 0.4 MV/m) at 85 °C in the lamellar phase, whose direction was set to be parallel or perpendicular to the magnetic field, resulted in the change of the doublet into a single line and this recovers to the initial doublet with time for both experimental geometries. This implies E- and B-field-induced phase transitions from the lamellar to an isotropic phase and a recovery to the lamellar phase again with time. Moreover, these phase transformations are accompanied by a transient current. A similar observation was made in a computational study when an electric field was applied to a water cluster system. Increasing the field strength distorts the water cluster and weakens its hydrogen bonds leading to a structural breakdown beyond a threshold field-strength. Therefore, we suggest the observed field-induced transition is likely due to a structure change of the βOG lamellar assembly caused by the field effect and not due to Joule heating.

1.
See http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/PressReleases/surfactants.asp for MarketsandMarkets, Surfactants Market, 2015.
2.
C. A.
Ericsson
,
L. C.
Ericsson
, and
S.
Ulvenlund
, “
Solid-state phase behaviour of dodecylglycosides
,”
Carbohydr. Res.
340
,
1529
1537
(
2005
).
3.
V.
Kocherbitov
and
O.
Soderman
, “
Glassy crystalline state and water sorption of alkyl maltosides
,”
Langmuir
20
,
3056
3061
(
2004
).
4.
G. A.
Jeffrey
, “
Carbohydrate liquid crystals
,”
Acc. Chem. Res.
19
,
168
173
(
1986
).
5.
S.
Ogawa
,
K.
Asakura
, and
S.
Osanai
, “
Thermotropic and glass transition behaviors of n-alkyl beta-D-glucosides
,”
RSC Adv.
3
,
21439
21446
(
2013
).
6.
V.
Vill
and
R.
Hashim
, “
Carbohydrate liquid crystals: Structure–property relationship of thermotropic and lyotropic glycolipids
,”
Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci.
7
,
395
409
(
2002
).
7.
T. S.
Velayutham
,
B. K.
Ng
,
W. C.
Gan
,
W. H. Abd.
Majid
,
R.
Hashim
,
N. I.
Zahid
, and
J.
Chaiprapa
, “
Phase sensitive molecular dynamics of self-assembly glycolipid thin films: A dielectric spectroscopy investigation
,”
J. Chem. Phys.
141
,
085101
(
2014
).
8.
T. S.
Velayutham
,
H. S.
Nguan
,
B. K.
Ng
,
W. C.
Gan
,
V.
Manickam Achari
,
N. I.
Zahid
,
W. H. Abd.
Majid
,
C.
Zannoni
, and
R.
Hashim
, “
Molecular dynamics of anhydrous glycolipid self-assembly in lamellar and hexagonal phases
,”
Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.
18
,
15182
15190
(
2016
).
9.
G.
Liao
,
S. K.
Zewe
,
J.
Hagerty
,
R.
Hashim
,
S.
Abeygunaratne
,
V.
Vill
, and
A.
Jákli
, “
Thermotropic liquid crystalline properties of amphiphilic branched chain glycolipids
,”
Liq. Cryst.
33
,
361
366
(
2006
).
10.
S.
Abeygunaratne
,
R.
Hashim
, and
V.
Vill
, “
Evidence for uncorrelated tilted layer structure and electrically polarized bilayers in amphiphilic glycolipids
,”
Phys. Rev. E
73
,
011916
(
2006
).
11.
V.
Vill
,
F.
Fischer
, and
J.
Thiem
, “
Helical twisting power of carbohydrate derivatives
,”
Z. Naturforsch.
A 43
,
1119
1125
(
1988
).
12.
D. L.
Dorset
and
J. P.
Rosenbusch
, “
Solid state properties of anomeric 1-O-n-octyl-d-glucopyranosides
,”
Chem. Phys. Lipids
29
,
299
307
(
1981
).
13.
V.
Kocherbitov
,
O.
Söderman
, and
L.
Wadsö
, “
Phase diagram and thermodynamics of the n-octyl β-d-glucoside/water system
,”
J. Phys. Chem. B
106
,
2910
2917
(
2002
).
14.
S.
Morandat
and
K.
El Kirat
, “
Solubilization of supported lipid membranes by octyl glucoside observed by time-lapse atomic force microscopy
,”
Colloids Surf., B
55
,
179
184
(
2007
).
15.
P.
Sakya
,
J. M.
Seddon
, and
V.
Vill
, “
Thermotropic and lyotropic phase behaviour of monoalkyl glycosides
,”
Liq. Cryst.
23
,
409
424
(
1997
).
16.
G. C.
Shearman
,
B. J.
Khoo
,
M.-L.
Motherwell
,
K. A.
Brakke
,
O.
Ces
,
C. E.
Conn
,
J. M.
Seddon
, and
R. H.
Templer
, “
Calculations of and evidence for chain packing stress in inverse lyotropic bicontinuous cubic phases
,”
Langmuir
23
,
7276
7285
(
2007
).
17.
A.
Loewenstein
and
D.
Igner
, “
Deuterium NMR studies of n-octyl α and β–glucopyranoside liquid-crystalline systems
,”
Liq. Cryst.
10
,
457
466
(
1991
).
18.
C. Y.
Liew
,
M.
Salim
,
N. I.
Zahid
, and
R.
Hashim
, “
Biomass derived xylose Guerbet surfactants: Thermotropic and lyotropic properties from small-angle X-ray scattering
,”
RSC Adv.
5
,
99125
99132
(
2015
).
19.
A.
Loewenstein
and
D.
Igner
, “
Deuterium N.M.R. of the n-octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside-solvent liquid-crystalline systems
,”
Liq. Cryst.
3
,
143
148
(
1988
).
20.
A.
Loewenstein
,
D.
Igner
,
U.
Zehavi
,
H.
Zimmermann
,
A.
Emerson
, and
G. R.
Luckhurst
, “
Deuterium NMR studies of n-alkyl-β-D-glucopyranosides liquid-crystalline systems
,”
Liq. Cryst.
7
,
457
474
(
1990
).
21.
O.
Misran
,
B. A.
Timimi
,
T.
Heidelberg
,
A.
Sugimura
, and
R.
Hashim
, “
Deuterium NMR Investigation of the lyotropic phases of alkyl beta-glycoside/D2O systems
,”
J. Phys. Chem. B
117
,
7335
7344
(
2013
).
22.
M.
Schadt
and
W.
Helfrich
, “
Voltage-dependent optical activity of a twisted nematic liquid crystal
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
18
,
127
128
(
1971
).
23.
J. P. F.
Lagerwall
and
G.
Scalia
, “
A new era for liquid crystal research: Applications of liquid crystals in soft matter nano-, bio- and microtechnology
,”
Curr. Appl. Phys.
12
,
1387
1412
(
2012
).
24.
T.
Ostapenko
,
D. B.
Wiant
,
S. N.
Sprunt
,
A.
Jákli
, and
J. T.
Gleeson
, “
Magnetic-field induced isotropic to nematic liquid crystal phase transition
,”
Phys. Rev. Lett.
101
,
247801
(
2008
).
25.
S. V.
Shevkunov
and
A.
Vegiri
, “
Electric field induced transitions in water clusters
,”
J. Mol. Struct.: THEOCHEM
593
,
19
32
(
2002
).
26.
A.
Goldsworthy
,
H.
Whitney
, and
E.
Morris
, “
Biological effects of physically conditioned water
,”
Water Res.
33
,
1618
1626
(
1999
).
27.
T.
James
,
D. J.
Wales
, and
J.
Hernández Rojas
, “
Energy landscapes for water clusters in a uniform electric field
,”
J. Chem. Phys.
126
,
054506
(
2007
).
28.
M. W.
Woo
and
A. S.
Mujumdar
, “
Effects of electric and magnetic field on freezing and possible relevance in freeze drying
,”
Drying Technol.
28
,
433
443
(
2010
).
29.
L.
Zhao
,
K.
Ma
, and
Z.
Yang
, “
Changes of water hydrogen bond network with different externalities
,”
Int. J. Mol. Sci.
16
,
8454
(
2015
).
30.
L. B.
Skinner
,
C. J.
Benmore
,
B.
Shyam
,
J. K. R.
Weber
, and
J. B.
Parise
, “
Structure of the floating water bridge and water in an electric field
,”
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A.
109
,
16463
16468
(
2012
).
31.
S.
Wei
,
X.
Xiaobin
,
Z.
Hong
, and
X.
Chuanxiang
, “
Effects of dipole polarization of water molecules on ice formation under an electrostatic field
,”
Cryobiology
56
,
93
99
(
2008
).
32.
J.
Han
,
X.
Zhou
, and
H.
Liu
, “
Ab initio simulation on the mechanism of proton transport in water
,”
J. Power Sources
161
,
1420
1427
(
2006
).
33.
C. M.
Paleos
and
D.
Tsiourvas
, “
Liquid crystals from hydrogen-bonded amphiphiles
,”
Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci.
6
,
257
267
(
2001
).
34.
G. A.
Jeffrey
, “
Molecular packing and hydrogen bonding in the crystal structures of the N-(n-alkyl)-D-gluconamide and the 1-deoxy-(N-methyl-alkanamido)-D-glucitol mesogens
,”
Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.
185
,
209
213
(
1990
).
35.
Y.
Dou
,
S.
Dong
, and
J.
Hao
, “
Magnetic-field-induced orientational phase structure transition
,”
Langmuir
30
,
1266
1271
(
2014
).
36.
H.
Zimmermann
, “
Specifically deuteriated intermediates for the synthesis of liquid crystals and liquid-crystalline polymers
,”
Liq. Cryst.
4
,
591
618
(
1989
).
37.
R.
Hashim
,
H. H. A.
Hashim
,
N. Z. M.
Rodzi
,
R. S. D.
Hussen
, and
T.
Heidelberg
, “
Branched chain glycosides: Enhanced diversity for phase behavior of easily accessible synthetic glycolipids
,”
Thin Solid Films
509
,
27
35
(
2006
).
38.
H.
Mada
and
S.
Kobayashi
, “
Wavelength and voltage dependences of refractive indices of nematic liquid crystals
,”
Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.
33
,
47
53
(
1976
).
39.
A.
Sugimura
,
T.
Miyamoto
,
M.
Tsuji
, and
M.
Kuze
, “
Determination of the unified surface-anchoring energy of a nematic liquid crystal on a polymer substrate
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
72
,
329
331
(
1998
).
40.
A.
Sugimura
and
G. R.
Luckhurst
, “
Liquid crystalline samples: Static and dynamic measurements of director alignment
,”
eMagRes
2
,
307
314
(
2013
).
41.
A.
Klaus
,
G. J.
Tiddy
,
D.
Touraud
,
A.
Schramm
,
G.
Stuhler
, and
W.
Kunz
, “
Phase behavior of an extended surfactant in water and a detailed characterization of the concentrated phases
,”
Langmuir
26
,
16871
16883
(
2010
).
42.
H. C.
Jarrell
,
P. A.
Jovall
,
J. B.
Giziewicz
,
L. A.
Turner
, and
I. C.
Smith
, “
Determination of conformational properties of glycolipid head groups by 2H NMR of oriented multibilayers
,”
Biochemistry
26
,
1805
1811
(
1987
).
43.
G. T.
Dimitrova
,
T. F.
Tadros
,
P. F.
Luckham
, and
M. R.
Kipps
, “
Investigations into the phase behavior of nonionic ethoxylated surfactants using 2H NMR spectroscopy
,”
Langmuir
12
,
315
318
(
1996
).
44.
C. E.
Fairhurst
,
M. C.
Holmes
, and
M. S.
Leaver
, “
Structure and morphology of the intermediate phase region in the nonionic surfactant C16EO6/water system
,”
Langmuir
13
,
4964
4975
(
1997
).
45.
A.
Sugimura
and
G. R.
Luckhurst
, “
Deuterium NMR investigations of field-induced director alignment in nematic liquid crystals
,”
Prog. Nucl. Mag. Res. Sp.
94–95
,
37
74
(
2016
).
46.
N.
Boden
,
L. D.
Clark
,
R. J.
Bushby
,
J. W.
Emsley
,
G. R.
Luckhurst
, and
C. P.
Stockley
, “
A deuterium NMR-study of chain ordering in the liquid-crystals 4,4′-di-n-heptyloxyazoxybenzene and 4-n-octyl-4′-cyanobiphenyl
,”
Mol. Phys.
42
,
565
594
(
1981
).
47.
K.
Rendall
and
G. J. T.
Tiddy
, “
Interaction of water and oxyethylene groups in lyotropic liquid-crystalline phases of poly(oxyethylene) n-dodecyl ether surfactants studied by 2H nuclear magnetic-resonance spectroscopy
,”
J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 1
80
,
3339
3357
(
1984
).
48.
J.
Seelig
and
W.
Niederberger
, “
Deuterium-labeled lipids as structural probes in liquid crystalline bilayers. Deuterium magnetic resonance study
,”
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
96
,
2069
2072
(
1974
).
49.
V.
ManickamAchari
,
R. A.
Bryce
, and
R.
Hashim
, “
Conformational dynamics of dry lamellar crystals of sugar based lipids: An atomistic simulation study
,”
PLoS One
9
,
e101110
(
2014
).
50.
P. G.
de Gennes
,
The Physics of Liquid Crystals
(
Oxford University Press
,
Oxford
,
1974
).
51.
S. R.
Gadre
,
S. D.
Yeole
, and
N.
Sahu
, “
Quantum chemical investigations on molecular clusters
,”
Chem. Rev.
114
,
12132
12173
(
2014
).
52.
D.
Rai
,
A. D.
Kulkarni
,
S. P.
Gejji
,
L. J.
Bartolotti
, and
R. K.
Pathak
, “
Exploring electric field induced structural evolution of water clusters, (H2O)n [n = 9–20]: Density functional approach
,”
J. Chem. Phys.
138
,
044304
(
2013
).
53.
I.
Bayach
,
V.
Manickam Achari
,
W. F. N.
Wan Iskandar
,
A.
Sugimura
, and
R.
Hashim
, “
Computational insights into octyl-D-xyloside isomers towards understanding the liquid crystalline structure: Physico-chemical features
,”
Liq. Cryst.
43
,
1503
1513
(
2016
).
54.
J. M.
Seddon
and
R. H.
Templer
,
Polymorphism of Lipid-Water Systems
(
Elsevier Science B. V.
,
North Holland
,
1995
).
55.
J. M.
Seddon
and
R. H.
Templer
, “
Cubic phases of self-assembled amphiphilic aggregates
,”
Philos. Trans. R. Soc., A
344
,
377
401
(
1993
).
56.
V.
Luzzati
,
R.
Vargas
,
P.
Mariani
,
A.
Gulik
, and
H.
Delacroix
, “
Cubic phases of lipid-containing systems: Elements of a theory and biological connotations
,”
J. Mol. Biol.
229
,
540
551
(
1993
).
57.
S.
Hyde
,
Identification of Lyotropic Liquid Crystalline Mesophases
(
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
,
Chichester, England
,
2001
).
58.
S. T.
Hyde
and
G. E.
Schröder-Turk
, “
Geometry of interfaces: Topological complexity in biology and materials
,”
Interface Focus
2
,
529
538
(
2012
).
59.
F. M.
Menger
,
A. V.
Peresypkin
,
K. L.
Caran
, and
R. P.
Apkarian
, “
A sponge morphology in an elementary coacervate
,”
Langmuir
16
,
9113
9116
(
2000
).
60.
A.
Pal
,
P.
Bharath
,
S. G.
Dastidar
, and
V. A.
Raghunathan
, “
Collapse and coacervation of a lamellar phase by inter-headgroup bridging
,”
Soft Matter
8
,
927
930
(
2012
).
61.
T.
Imura
,
Y.
Hikosaka
,
W.
Worakitkanchanakul
,
H.
Sakai
,
M.
Abe
,
M.
Konishi
,
H.
Minamikawa
, and
D.
Kitamoto
, “
Aqueous-phase behavior of natural glycolipid biosurfactant mannosylerythritol lipid A: Sponge, cubic, and lamellar phases
,”
Langmuir
23
,
1659
1663
(
2007
).
62.
W. C.
Gan
, “
Small angle and wide angle X-ray scattering of the micellar phase of octyl-glucoside
,” personal communication, private communication (
2016
).
You do not currently have access to this content.