Salt, glycerol, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) are used to modify the properties of protein solutions. We experimentally determined the effect of these additives on the phase behavior of lysozyme solutions. Upon the addition of glycerol and DMSO, the fluid–solid transition and the gas–liquid coexistence curve (binodal) shift to lower temperatures and the gap between them increases. The experimentally observed trends are consistent with our theoretical predictions based on the thermodynamic perturbation theory and the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek model for the lysozyme-lysozyme pair interactions. The values of the parameters describing the interactions, namely the refractive indices, dielectric constants, Hamaker constant and cut-off length, are extracted from literature or are experimentally determined by independent experiments, including static light scattering, to determine the second virial coefficient. We observe that both, glycerol and DMSO, render the potential more repulsive, while sodium chloride reduces the repulsion.

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