We consider the condensation transition of microemulsion droplets of oil which are dispersed in water in the presence of surfactant. Since a macroscopic oil phase is formed due to this transition, it is called “emulsification failure.” Based on the free energy approach, we determine the transition lines between the spherical and the cylindrical droplet phases as well as the phase boundary lines of the emulsification failure. The phase diagrams are calculated by changing the physical properties of the surfactant monolayer such as the saddle-splay modulus and the spontaneous curvature. For a negative saddle-splay modulus, the spherical droplet phase coexists with the excess oil phase. In some cases, a re-entrant transition (spherecylindersphere) is expected to take place. For a positive saddle-splay modulus, the system undergoes a direct transition from the cylindrical droplet phase to the macroscopically phase separated state. The sphere-to-cylinder transition line approaches the emulsification failure boundary as the saddle-splay modulus becomes larger.

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