Hedin’s equations [Phys. Rev.139, 796 (1965)] for the one-particle equilibrium Green’s function of a many-electron system are generalized to nonequilibrium open systems using two fields that separately control the evolution of the bra and the ket of the density matrix. A closed hierarchy is derived for the Green’s function, the self-energy, the screened potential, the polarization, and the vertex function, all expressed as Keldysh matrices in Liouville space.

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