Infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy of CO has been used as a surface-sensitive probe for the available binding sites of Co–Pd bimetallic particles supported on a thin alumina film. A high-coverage state is obtained on the Co particles in addition to atop sites, attributable to a M(CO)n species. Bridge and threefold sites are not detected from CO stretching on the Co particles. When both metals are deposited sequentially at 300 K, Pd easily forms a shell on existing Co particles. In the reverse order, much more Co is required to coat Pd particles, because it nucleates between Pd particles as well as on top of them. For both metals, atop sites are better preserved at various bimetallic compositions because they are statistically less vulnerable than threefold hollow sites. The stretching frequency of CO to a given site is nearly independent of the bimetallic composition.

1.
D. J.
Wilhelm
,
D. R.
Simbeck
,
A. D.
Karp
, and
R. L.
Dickenson
,
Fuel Proc. Tech.
71
,
139
(
2001
).
2.
F.
Fischer
and
H.
Tropsch
,
Brennstoff-Chem.
7
,
97
(
1926
);
H.
Schulz
,
Appl. Catal., A
186
,
3
(
1999
).
3.
L.
Guczi
and
L.
Borko
,
Catal. Today
64
,
91
(
2001
).
4.
L.
Guczi
,
L.
Borko
,
Z.
Schay
,
D.
Bazin
, and
F.
Mizukami
,
Catal. Today
65
,
51
(
2001
);
L.
Guczi
,
Z.
Schay
,
G.
Stefler
, and
F.
Mizukami
,
J. Mol. Catal. A: Chem.
141
,
177
(
1999
);
N.
Tsubaki
,
S.
Sun
, and
K.
Fujimoto
,
J. Catal.
199
,
236
(
2001
).
5.
H. Idriss, C. Diagne, J. P. Hindermann, A. Kinnemann, and M. A. Barteau, in Proceedings, 10th International Congress on Catalysis, Budapest, 1992, edited by P. Tetenyi (Elsevier, Budapest, 1992), Vol. C, p. 2119;
M. P. Kapoor, A. L. Lapidus, and A. Y. Krylova, in Proceedings, 10th International Congress on Catalysis, Budapest, 1992, edited by P. Tetenyi (Elsevier, Budapest, 1992), Vol. C, p. 2741;
W.
Juszczyk
,
Z.
Karpinski
,
D.
Lomot
,
J.
Pielaszek
,
Z.
Paal
, and
A. Y.
Stakheev
,
J. Catal.
142
,
617
(
1993
);
F. B.
Noronha
,
M.
Schmal
,
C.
Nicot
,
B.
Moraweck
, and
R.
Frety
,
J. Catal.
168
,
42
(
1997
);
S.
Bischoff
,
A.
Weight
,
K.
Fujimoto
, and
B.
Lücke
,
J. Mol. Catal. A: Chem.
95
,
259
(
1995
).
6.
M. E.
Bridge
and
R. M.
Lambert
,
Surf. Sci.
82
,
413
(
1979
);
G. R.
Castro
and
J.
Küppers
,
Surf. Sci.
123
,
456
(
1982
).
7.
M.
Gierer
,
H.
Over
,
P.
Rech
,
E.
Schwarz
, and
K.
Christmann
,
Surf. Sci.
380
,
L201
(
1997
).
8.
G. W.
Simmons
,
Y.-N.
Wang
,
J.
Marcos
, and
K.
Klier
,
J. Phys. Chem.
95
,
4522
(
1991
);
E.
Shimada
,
H.
Yamashita
,
S.
Matsumoto
,
Y.
Ikuma
, and
H.
Ichimura
,
J. Mater. Sci.
34
,
4011
(
1999
);
E. H.
Voogt
,
A. J. M.
Mens
,
O. L. J.
Gijzeman
, and
J. W.
Geus
,
Surf. Sci.
373
,
210
(
1997
).
9.
R. M.
Jaeger
,
H.
Kuhlenbeck
,
H.-J.
Freund
,
M.
Wuttig
,
W.
Hoffmann
,
R.
Franchy
, and
H.
Ibach
,
Surf. Sci.
259
,
235
(
1991
).
10.
M.
Frank
and
M.
Bäumer
,
Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.
2
,
3723
(
2000
).
11.
M.
Bäumer
and
H.-J.
Freund
,
Prog. Surf. Sci.
61
,
127
(
1999
).
12.
M.
Heemeier
,
A. F.
Carlsson
,
M.
Naschitzki
,
M.
Schmal
,
M.
Bäumer
, and
H.-J.
Freund
,
Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl.
41
,
4073
(
2002
).
13.
K. H.
Hansen
,
T.
Worren
,
S.
Stempel
,
E.
Laegsgaard
,
M.
Baumer
,
H. J.
Freund
,
F.
Besenbacher
, and
I.
Stensgaard
,
Phys. Rev. Lett.
83
,
4120
(
1999
).
14.
T.
Hill
,
M.
Mozaffari-Afshar
,
J.
Schmidt
,
T.
Risse
,
S.
Stempel
,
M.
Heemeier
, and
H. J.
Freund
,
Chem. Phys. Lett.
292
,
524
(
1998
).
15.
M.
Bäumer
,
M.
Frank
,
M.
Heemeier
,
R.
Kühnemuth
,
S.
Stempel
, and
H. J.
Freund
,
Surf. Sci.
454–456
,
957
(
2000
).
16.
A. F.
Carlsson
,
M.
Naschitzki
,
M.
Bäumer
, and
H. J.
Freund
,
J. Phys. Chem. B
107
,
778
(
2003
).
17.
T.
Giessel
,
O.
Schaff
,
C. J.
Hirschmugl
et al.,
Surf. Sci.
406
,
90
(
1998
);
X.
Guo
,
J.
John
, and
T.
Yates
,
J. Chem. Phys.
90
,
6761
(
1989
).
18.
J.
Lahtinen
,
J.
Vaari
, and
K.
Kauraala
,
Surf. Sci.
418
,
502
(
1998
);
J.
Lahtinen
,
J.
Vaari
,
K.
Kauraala
,
E. A.
Soares
, and
M. A.
Van Hove
,
Surf. Sci.
448
,
269
(
2000
).
19.
J. A.
Rodriguez
,
Surf. Sci. Rep.
24
,
225
(
1996
);
C. T.
Campbell
,
Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.
41
,
775
(
1990
);
P.
Liu
and
J. K.
Norskov
,
Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.
3
,
3814
(
2001
).
20.
J.
Schmidt
,
T.
Risse
,
H.
Hamann
, and
H. J.
Freund
,
J. Chem. Phys.
116
,
10861
(
2002
).
21.
R. M.
Jaeger
,
J.
Libuda
,
M.
Bäumer
,
K.
Homann
,
H.
Kuhlenbeck
, and
H.-J.
Freund
,
J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom.
64/65
,
217
(
1993
).
22.
R. L.
Toomes
and
D. A.
King
,
Surf. Sci.
349
,
1
(
1996
).
23.
T. Risse, A. F. Carlsson, M. Bäumer, T. Klüner, and H.-J. Freund, Surf. Sci. (to be published).
24.
P.
Hollins
,
Surf. Sci. Rep.
16
,
51
(
1992
).
25.
G. A.
Beitel
,
A.
Laskov
,
H.
Oosterbeek
, and
E. W.
Kuipers
,
J. Phys. Chem.
100
,
12
494
(
1996
).
26.
A. M.
Bradshaw
and
J.
Pritchard
,
Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A
316
,
169
(
1970
).
27.
M. J.
Heal
,
E. C.
Leisegang
, and
R. G.
Torrington
,
J. Catal.
51
,
314
(
1978
).
28.
R. A.
Gardner
and
R. H.
Petrucci
,
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
82
,
5051
(
1960
);
N. N.
Kavtaradze
and
N. P.
Sokolova
,
Zh. Fiz. Khim.
38
,
1004
(
1964
).
29.
N. Sheppard and T. T. Nguyen, in Advances in Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy, edited by R. J. H. Clark (Heyden, London, 1978), Vol. 5, p. 67.
30.
L. A.
Hanlan
,
H.
Huber
,
E. P.
Kundig
,
B. R.
McGarvey
, and
G. A.
Ozin
,
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
97
,
7054
(
1975
).
31.
K.
Wolter
,
O.
Seiferth
,
H.
Kuhlenbeck
,
M.
Bäumer
, and
H.-J.
Freund
,
Surf. Sci.
399
,
190
(
1998
).
32.
M.
Krawczyk
,
L.
Zommer
,
B.
Lesiak
, and
A.
Jablonski
,
Surf. Interface Anal.
25
,
356
(
1997
).
33.
K.
Fukutani
,
T. T.
Magkoev
,
Y.
Murata
,
M.
Matsumoto
,
T.
Kawauchi
,
T.
Magome
,
Y.
Tezuka
, and
S.
Shin
,
J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom.
88
,
597
(
1998
);
K.
Fukutani
,
Y.
Murata
,
J.
Brillo
,
H.
Kuhlenbeck
,
H. J.
Freund
, and
M.
Taguchi
,
Surf. Sci.
464
,
48
(
2000
).
34.
T. T.
Magkoev
and
Y.
Murata
,
Tech. Phys.
47
,
752
(
2002
).
35.
G.
Blyholder
,
J. Phys. Chem.
68
,
2772
(
1964
).
36.
B. H.
Davis
,
Fuel Proc. Tech.
71
,
157
(
2001
).
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.