Specially synthesized silica colloidal spheres with fluorescent cores were used as model electrorheological fluids to experimentally explore structure formation and evolution under conditions of no shear. Using confocal scanning laser microscopy we measured the location of each colloid in three dimensions. We observed an equilibrium body-centered tetragonal phase and several nonequilibrium structures such as sheet-like labyrinths and isolated chains of colloids. The formation of nonequilibrium structures was studied as a function of the volume fraction, electric field strength, and starting configuration of the colloid. We compare our observations to previous experiments, simulations, and calculations.

1.
J. E.
Stangroom
,
Phys. Technol.
14
,
290
(
1983
).
2.
A.
van Blaaderen
,
MRS Bull.
23
,
39
(
1998
).
3.
W.
Wen
,
N.
Wang
,
H.
Ma
,
Z.
Lin
,
W.
Tam
,
C.
Chan
, and
P.
Sheng
,
Phys. Rev. Lett.
82
,
4248
(
1999
).
4.
J. Priestley, The History and Present State of Electricity with Original Experiments, 2nd ed. (J. Dodsley, London, 1769).
5.
H. A. Pohl, Dielectrophoresis (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1978), p. 495.
6.
W. M.
Winslow
,
J. Appl. Phys.
20
,
1138
(
1949
).
7.
M.
Parthasarathy
and
D.
Klingenberg
,
Mater. Sci. Eng., R.
17
,
57
(
1996
).
8.
R.
Tao
and
J. M.
Sun
,
Phys. Rev. Lett.
67
,
398
(
1991
).
9.
T.
Chen
,
R. N.
Zitter
, and
R.
Tao
,
Phys. Rev. Lett.
68
,
2555
(
1992
).
10.
T. C.
Halsey
and
W.
Toor
,
Phys. Rev. Lett.
65
,
2820
(
1990
).
11.
J. E.
Martin
,
R. A.
Anderson
, and
C. P.
Tigges
,
J. Chem. Phys.
108
,
3765
(
1998
).
12.
J. E.
Martin
,
R. A.
Anderson
, and
C. P.
Tigges
,
J. Chem. Phys.
110
,
4854
(
1999
).
13.
A.
van Blaaderen
,
R.
Ruel
, and
P.
Wiltzius
,
Nature (London)
385
,
321
(
1997
).
14.
A.
van Blaaderen
and
P.
Wiltzius
,
Science
270
,
1177
(
1995
).
15.
A.
van Blaaderen
and
A.
Vrij
,
Langmuir
8
,
2921
(
1992
).
16.
Confocal Microscopy, edited by T. Wilson (Academic, London, 1995).
17.
J. M.
Sun
and
R.
Tao
,
Phys. Rev. E
53
,
3732
(
1996
).
18.
P. N.
Pusey
,
W.
van Megan
,
P.
Bartlett
,
B. J.
Ackerson
,
J. G.
Rarity
, and
S. M.
Underwood
,
Phys. Rev. Lett.
63
,
2753
(
1989
).
19.
M. S.
Elliot
,
B. T. F.
Bristol
, and
W. C. K.
Poon
,
Physica A
235
,
216
(
1997
).
20.
A. van Blaaderen (unpublished).
21.
E. M.
Lawrence
,
M. L.
Ivey
,
G. A.
Flores
,
J.
Liu
,
J.
Bibette
, and
J.
Richard
,
Int. J. Mod. Phys. B
8
,
2765
(
1994
).
22.
J. R.
Melrose
and
D. M.
Heyes
,
J. Chem. Phys.
98
,
5873
(
1993
).
23.
J. R.
Melrose
,
Mol. Phys.
76
,
635
(
1992
).
24.
K. C.
Hass
,
Phys. Rev. E
47
,
3362
(
1993
).
25.
W.
Toor
,
J. Colloid Interface Sci.
156
,
335
(
1993
).
26.
J. E.
Martin
,
J.
Odinek
,
T. C.
Halsey
, and
R.
Kamien
,
Phys. Rev. E
57
,
756
(
1998
).
27.
R.
Tao
and
Q.
Jiang
,
Phys. Rev. Lett.
73
,
205
(
1994
).
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.