The increasing demands of device applications in harsh environments have led to higher expectations for temperature and pressure resistance in high-temperature piezoelectric materials. In order to understand the performance characteristics of BiScO3-PbTiO3 (BS-PT) high-temperature piezoelectric materials in practical device applications, this study focuses on analyzing the dielectric, piezoelectric, and ferroelectric properties of BS-64PT ceramics under uniaxial stress up to 150 MPa, as well as its electromechanical performance under a hydrostatic pressure of up to 400 MPa. As the uniaxial pressure increases, both the bias-field and large-signal piezoelectric coefficients exhibit a pattern of initially increasing and subsequently decreasing. Furthermore, the bias-field piezoelectric coefficient exceeds 450 pC/N and the large-signal piezoelectric coefficient surpasses 630 pC/N under uniaxial pressures below 100 MPa. This highlights their exceptional resistance to depolarization caused by uniaxial stress. To obtain more precise piezoelectric properties for BS-64PT ceramics in the 31 and 33 modes under hydrostatic pressure, the admittance fitting method was utilized. This method takes into account the significant losses at higher pressures. Within the pressure range of 0–400 MPa, the values of d33 and d31 for BS-64PT ceramics exhibited a minor change of 7.6% and 8%, respectively. These findings indicate that BS-64PT ceramics exhibit more stable piezoelectric properties under both uniaxial and hydrostatic pressures when compared to the majority of Pb-based perovskite-structured materials. The exceptional stability of piezoelectric properties in BS-PT ceramics can be primarily attributed to their elevated anisotropy energy or coercivity field compared to other perovskite-structured Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 (PMN) / Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT)-based ceramics reported.

High-temperature piezoelectric materials find extensive applications in aerospace, nuclear energy, and oil well logging, where they are utilized for actuation and sensing.1–3 In practical applications, piezoelectric materials are expected to withstand high temperatures, high levels of stress, and high bias electric fields, and all these factors can significantly impact the performance of ceramics.4–8 For example, in petroleum exploration, well-logging instruments are required to withstand high temperatures up to 300 °C and high pressures exceeding 120 MPa when operating in ultra-deep wells. Additionally, deep-water acoustic transducers are commonly utilized in deep-sea exploration, where the hydrostatic pressure can exceed 100 MPa when the detectors operate at depths of over 10 000 meters in the ocean.9 Hence, it is of utmost importance to carry out comprehensive testing on piezoelectric materials under different conditions, including high temperatures, pressures, and electric fields. Additionally, it is worth mentioning that piezoelectric ceramics are often subjected to a high compressive pressure as a pre-stress (typically around 50 MPa) to maintain them in a compressed state. This pre-stress helps compensate for tensile strength and enhances the reliability of the ceramics.10 Systematically investigating the stress-dependent electromechanical properties of piezoelectric ceramics is crucial in device design to mitigate the impact of changes in ceramics properties.

Considerable efforts have been dedicated to studying the performance of relaxor PT-based ferroelectric single crystals, as well as textured and randomly oriented ceramics, such as Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT), Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PZN-PT), Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PT), and Pb(Sc1/2Nb1/2)O3-PbTiO3 (PSN-PT), under high electric and pressure fields.11–16 For example, Yasuda et al. conducted a study on the piezoelectric properties of 91Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-9PbTiO3 single crystals under hydrostatic pressure, and the results revealed that the k33 value remained relatively constant even when subjected to hydrostatic pressures of up to 400 MPa.17 Tang et al. have studied the electromechanical properties in [001]-textured Mn-PMN–PZT ceramics under uniaxial pressure, and they found that compared to randomly oriented ceramics, textured ceramics not only exhibit higher piezoelectric performance in a uniaxial stress field but also demonstrate superior resistance to uniaxial stress-induced depolarization.13 

However, there is currently a lack of comprehensive research on the performance variations in the BiScO3-PbTiO3 (BS-PT) material under intense electric and pressure fields, including uniaxial pressure and hydrostatic pressure.18,19 Such investigations would provide valuable insights for the design of devices such as transducers and sensors. In this paper, the piezoelectric and dielectric properties of BS-64PT ceramics are characterized under uniaxial and hydrostatic stress up to 150 and 400 MPa, respectively. The results of the uniaxial pressure tests reveal that the piezoelectric performance of the BS-64PT ceramics initially increases and then decreases as the uniaxial pressure rises. Even at higher pressures, the piezoelectric properties of the ceramics remain consistently higher than the unpressed state, indicating a good resistance to depolarization. This effect is particularly pronounced when the pressure is below 100 MPa of uniaxial pressure. Furthermore, the comparison of sij, kij, and dij (i, j = 1, 3) under hydrostatic pressure was carried out using both direct calculation and admittance fitting methods. The results demonstrate that, at lower pressures, both methods yield similar results. However, at relatively higher pressures, notable discrepancies occur due to significant losses, with the admittance fitting method providing more accurate piezoelectric constants. Under a hydrostatic pressure of 400 MPa, the BS-64PT ceramic exhibits k31 = 0.32, d31 = 155 pC/N, k33 = 0.68, and d33 = 390 pC/N. This study offers valuable insights into the performance variations of high-temperature piezoelectric materials under high pressure, which are crucial for the design and application of devices in extreme environment.

A conventional solid-state reaction method was used to prepare 0.36BiScO3-0.64PbTiO3 (BS-64PT) ceramics. Powders of Sc2O3(99.99%), Bi2O3(99.9%), TiO2(99.9%), and PbO(99.9%) were weighed stoichiometrically and ball-milled with ZrO2 balls for 24 h. Subsequently, the powders were dried at 80 °C and then calcined at 750 °C for 3 h. Next, the calcined powders were ball-milled again in ethanol for 24 h. After that, the powders were pressed through cold isostatic pressing (CIP) at a pressure of 150 MPa for 5 min, and the ceramic green is covered with the same powers to avoid the volatilization of Pb and Bi, and then sintered at 1130 °C for 3 h in an air atmosphere. The lengths, widths, and thicknesses of BS-64PT samples for the 31-mode are 16.8, 4.2, and 1.3 mm, respectively. For the 33-mode, they are 3.0, 3.0, and 9.0 mm, respectively. Both surfaces of the samples were coated with silver electrodes and fired at 550 °C for 30 min. Samples were poled in a silicon oil bath at 150 °C under the direct-current electric field of 3 kV/mm for 30 min.

To apply uniaxial pressure, a pressurizing device was utilized, and alumina plates were positioned on the contact surface of the samples and the device to ensure insulation. The sample electrodes were connected to either an LCR meter (Keysight E4980, USA) or a coulomb meter (Huace, HEST-111, China) using low-resistance copper wires. The piezoelectric constant at small signal was determined using a d33-meter (DZ31, China). Additionally, under the uniaxial pressure, two other types of piezoelectric coefficients were obtained through different testing methods.13 The first type of piezoelectric coefficient is the bias-field piezoelectric coefficient d33(1), which is determined by measuring the strain response induced by an 1 kV/cm under a specific pressure. The magnitude of the strain is obtained by attaching high-sensitivity strain gauges around the cylindrical ceramics. The second piezoelectric coefficient is the large-signal d33(2), which is calculated using the formula d33(2) = Q/F, where Q is the charge released or absorbed during the transition from high stress (F) to pressure release. For hydrostatic stress, the pressure was applied to the oil chamber through uniaxial press and the pressure medium is 46# hydraulic oil. The polarization vs electric field loops were measured by a ferroelectric tester (aixACCT TF analyzer 2000, Germany) at 1 Hz.

Table I lists the room-temperature electromechanical properties of BS-64PT ceramics. These properties are basically comparable with those of previous studies on the BS-64PT ceramics. The BS-64PT ceramics in this study exhibit excellent piezoelectric properties and a high Curie temperature. The samples were systematically investigated under both uniaxial and hydrostatic pressure conditions, as described in the following.

TABLE I.

The basic electromechanical properties of BS-64PT ceramics.

Sampled33 (pC/N)ɛrtanδ (%)TC (°C)d31 (pC/N)k31k33
BS-64PT 450 1866 3.5 445 −179 0.37 0.7 
Sampled33 (pC/N)ɛrtanδ (%)TC (°C)d31 (pC/N)k31k33
BS-64PT 450 1866 3.5 445 −179 0.37 0.7 

Figure 1 illustrates the uniaxial pressure-dependent dielectric and piezoelectric properties of BS-64PT ceramics, all of which were obtained after the uniaxial stress holding for 3 min. With the increase in the pressure, the dielectric constant (ɛr) first increases to a maximum value when pressure reaches 70 MPa, and then slightly decreases and becomes flat, as depicted in Fig. 1(a). The dielectric loss (tanδ) of BS-64PT ceramics shows a similar ɛr − σ trend with the increase in the pressure. It demonstrates a notable increase during the initial pressure increments, followed by a subsequent decrease, reaching its peak at 50 MPa. Stress-induced polarization rotation, similar to the behavior of ferroelectric materials in a temperature field, will result in domain wall motion and significantly raise the loss.20 To provide a more comprehensive demonstration of the influence of the stress field on the piezoelectric performance, Figs. 1(b) and 1(c) present the piezoelectric coefficients under bias field [d33(1)] and large signal [d33(2)], respectively. The bias-field d33(1) of the BS-64PT ceramics exhibits an increase with increasing pressures, reaching a maximum value of 570 pC/N at a pressure of 80 MPa. However, with higher applied pressures, partial depolarization occurs, resulting in a significant deterioration of d33(1). The testing of the large-signal d33(2) involves placing the piezoelectric ceramics in a short-circuit configuration to release the depolarization current during pressurization. The charge Q released by the unloading force F is collected in the circuit, and the large-signal d33(2) is calculated using the formula d33(2) = Q/F. The results are shown in Fig. 1(c). The large-signal d33(2) of BS-64PT ceramics follows a similar trend to d33(1), reaching a maximum value of 899 pC/N at a pressure of 70 MPa and decreasing with higher pressure. Even when subjected to a uniaxial stress of 150 MPa, the material retains approximately 50% of its original performance. With the uniaxial pressure of below 100 MPa, both piezoelectric constants of the material consistently maintain performance higher than the unpressed state, demonstrating the good depolarization resistance in BS-64PT ceramics.

FIG. 1.

(a) Uniaxial stress-dependent dielectric constant and loss; (b) bias-field d33(1); (c) and large-signal d33(2) for BS-64PT ceramic.

FIG. 1.

(a) Uniaxial stress-dependent dielectric constant and loss; (b) bias-field d33(1); (c) and large-signal d33(2) for BS-64PT ceramic.

Close modal

The stress-dependent PE loops of BS-64PT are shown in Fig. 2. As the uniaxial pressure increases, the PE loops apparently become thinner, and the residual polarization (Pr), saturation polarization (Pmax), and coercive force field (EC) decrease. The results indicate that the ferroelectricity of BS-64PT ceramics is suppressed by uniaxial compression.14,21 The changes in values of Pr and EC with the increase in the uniaxial pressure are plotted in Figs. 2(b) and 2(c), where Pr and EC decrease from 43.77 to 29.54 μC/cm2 and 23.18 to 15.97 kV/cm at 150 MPa, respectively. The general behaviors of electromechanical properties depicted in Figs. 1 and 2 have been explained through phase-field simulations and theoretical analysis in our prior work.13 Briefly, uniaxial compressive stress can induce an in-plane anisotropy energy on piezoelectric ceramics. As the uniaxial stress increases, the stress-induced anisotropy causes polarizations to rotate toward the xy-plane, leading to a continuous decrease in remnant polarizations to zero [Fig. 2(b)]. This results in an increased angle between polarizations and the uniaxial z-axis. Similar behaviors have also been observed in soft PZT-based ceramics.21–23 Since the polarization response of piezoelectric materials under electric field is associated with “polarization rotation” rather than “polarization elongation,” a larger angle usually corresponds to a higher dielectric constant. As a result, the uniaxial stress exerted on ceramics can increase the angle up to 90°, thereby enhancing the dielectric constant initially under relatively small stress. However, if the compressive stress is too large, the stress-induced in-plane anisotropy is strong enough to significantly diminish the polarization response, resulting in a decreasing dielectric constant. Consequently, the piezoelectric behavior can be explained by the general relationship d P r ε r. The initial increment of piezoelectric coefficients below 70 MPa results from the elevated dielectric constant. As the uniaxial pressure increases further, the dielectric constant starts to decrease, and the polarization is significantly suppressed, leading to a reduction in the piezoelectric coefficient, as shown in Figs. 1(b) and 1(c). Additionally, the area enclosed by the P–E curves, as shown in Fig. 2(d), represents the energy dissipation, indicating the energy loss consumed during the domain switching process. The decrease in energy consumption with increasing pressure can be attributed to a reduction in the number of domains participating in the polarization reversal.13 

FIG. 2.

(a) Uniaxial stress-dependent PE loops; (b) Pmax and Pr; (c) coercive field (EC); and (d) dissipation energy of BS-64PT ceramics.

FIG. 2.

(a) Uniaxial stress-dependent PE loops; (b) Pmax and Pr; (c) coercive field (EC); and (d) dissipation energy of BS-64PT ceramics.

Close modal

Figure 3 shows the dielectric property of BS-64PT ceramic under hydrostatic stress. The results indicate that both the dielectric constants and losses increase with increasing pressure. Specifically, the dielectric constant and dielectric loss increase from 1964 and 3.8% in the free state to 2345 and 4.7% at 400 MPa, respectively. The same phenomenon has been reported in PMN-PT ceramics by Gao et al.16 The observed phenomenon arises from the increase of domain wall motion. With an increase in the hydrostatic pressure, the phase transition temperature (Tm) undergoes a downward shift, approaching room temperature. This shift facilitates enhanced domain wall motion, resulting in an increase in both dielectric constants and loss.12,16,24

FIG. 3.

Hydrostatic stress-dependent dielectric constant and loss of BS-64PT ceramics.

FIG. 3.

Hydrostatic stress-dependent dielectric constant and loss of BS-64PT ceramics.

Close modal

Figure 4 illustrates the hydrostatic stress-dependent resonance–antiresonance spectra of BS-64PT ceramics in the 31-mode. As the hydrostatic stress increases, the resonance–antiresonance peaks are suppressed, and the phase angle undergoes a significant decrease. In Fig. 4(c), it is evident that the antiresonance frequency (fa) shifts to lower frequencies, while the resonance frequency (fr) shifts to higher frequencies with increasing hydrostatic stress in BS-64PT ceramics.

FIG. 4.

Hydrostatic stress-dependent (a) resonance–antiresonance and (b) phase angle spectrum of BS-64PT ceramics with 31-mode specimens. (c) Hydrostatic stress-dependent of fa and fr.

FIG. 4.

Hydrostatic stress-dependent (a) resonance–antiresonance and (b) phase angle spectrum of BS-64PT ceramics with 31-mode specimens. (c) Hydrostatic stress-dependent of fa and fr.

Close modal
For the 31-mode, the admittance equation is given by25–27,
Y 31 = j ω w l ε 0 ε 33 X t [ ( 1 k 31 2 ) + k 31 2 tan ω l 2 v 11 E ω l 2 v 11 E ] ,
k 31 2 = d 31 2 / ( ε 0 ε 33 X s 11 E ) ,
v 11 E = 1 / ρ s 11 E ,
where ε 33 X is the stress-free complex relative permittivity, k 31 2 is the complex electro-mechanical coupling coefficient, v 11 E is complex sound velocity, w, l and t are the size parameters of samples, and ω is the angular frequency. Typically, the electromechanical parameters s11, k31, and d31 are obtained through direct calculations without considering dissipation. However, when this method is applied to lossy materials, significant errors can be introduced to the results. Loss in materials can be categorized into three types: dielectric loss, elastic loss, and piezoelectric loss. The complex parameters are expressed as16,27
ε = ε ( 1 j tan δ ) ,
s E = s E ( 1 j tan φ ) ,
d = d ( 1 j tan θ ) ,
where ε , s E , and d are complex parameters of dielectric constant, compliance coefficient, and piezoelectric constant, respectively. tan δ , tan φ , and tan θ are the corresponding loss factors.

The fitting results of BS-64PT ceramics under hydrostatic pressure at 0 and 400 MPa in the 31-mode are shown in Figs. 5(a) and 5(b). It can be seen that the experimental data and fitting results are well matched in impedance spectra at 0 and 400 MPa. The hydrostatic pressure-dependent piezoelectric coefficients (d31), electromechanical coupling coefficients (k31), and elastic compliance coefficients (s11) were obtained by fitting results and calculated using the resonance method, as shown in Fig. 5(c). A notable discrepancy is observed between the directly calculated and fitting values of the electromechanical constants. This discrepancy arises because the maximum phase angle of BS-64PT ceramics deviates from 90° at 0 MPa, indicating the presence of losses. Consequently, the resonance method is not applicable under these lossy conditions.12,16 The fitting results indicate that d31, k31, and sE11 show no significant variations under increasing hydrostatic stress, changing from 144 pC/N, 0.33, and 13.4 × 10−12 m2/N at 0 MPa to 155 pC/N, 0.33, and 13.8 × 10−12 m2/N, respectively.

FIG. 5.

Fitting results for BS-64PT ceramics in the 31-mode at (a) 0, (b) 400 MPa hydrostatic stress. Hydrostatic stress-dependent (c)–(e) piezoelectric charge coefficient d31, electromechanical coupling coefficient k31, and compliance coefficient sE11.

FIG. 5.

Fitting results for BS-64PT ceramics in the 31-mode at (a) 0, (b) 400 MPa hydrostatic stress. Hydrostatic stress-dependent (c)–(e) piezoelectric charge coefficient d31, electromechanical coupling coefficient k31, and compliance coefficient sE11.

Close modal
For the 33-mode, the complex admittance is as follows:16,28
Y 33 = j ω w t l ε 0 ε 33 X ( 1 k 33 2 ) 1 ta n ω l / 2 v 33 D ω / 2 v 33 D .
In the above equation, k 33 represents the complex electromechanical coupling factor, defined as k 33 2 = d 33 2 / ( ε 0 ε 33 X s 33 E ); v 33 D represents the complex sound velocity, calculated through v 11 E = 1 / ρ s 33 D , and s 33 D = s 33 E × ( 1 k 33 2 ).12 

Figure 6 illustrates the impedance spectra of the 33-mode BS-64PT ceramics under hydrostatic pressure. Similar to the 31 mode, as the hydrostatic pressure increases, the shape of the impedance spectra gradually becomes smoother, accompanied by a reduction in the maximum phase angle. However, the frequency of fa and fr exhibits minimal variations with increasing hydrostatic stress, with maximum rate changes for both fa and fr remaining below 3%.

FIG. 6.

Hydrostatic stress-dependent (a) resonance–antiresonance and (b) phase angle spectrum of BS-64PT ceramics with 33-mode specimens. (c) Hydrostatic stress-dependent of fa and fr.

FIG. 6.

Hydrostatic stress-dependent (a) resonance–antiresonance and (b) phase angle spectrum of BS-64PT ceramics with 33-mode specimens. (c) Hydrostatic stress-dependent of fa and fr.

Close modal

The hydrostatic stress-dependent resonance–antiresonance spectrum and fitted electromechanical parameters of BS-64PT ceramics with 33-mode are depicted in Fig. 7. It can be observed that the original data are perfectly matched with the results of fitting by admittance expression. Notably, the impedance spectra of BS-64PT ceramics with 33-mode exhibit minor changes at 0 and 400 MPa. The pressure-dependent values of k33, d33, and sE33 obtained through direct calculation and fitting are shown in Figs. 7(c)7(e). Within the range of 0–400 MPa, the calculated and fitted results for all parameters are in good agreement, attributed to the relatively small variations in fa and fr. It is worth mentioning that even under a hydrostatic pressure of 400 MPa, good piezoelectric properties for d33, k33, and sE33 (390 pC/N, 0.68, and 17.9 × 10−12 m2/N, respectively) are maintained, demonstrating outstanding underwater performance. Within the pressure range from 0 to 400 MPa, the d33 of BS-64PT ceramics increases by 8%, from 360 to 390 pC/N. Additionally, the results in the 33-mode indicate that BS-64PT ceramics exhibit a more stable longitudinal vibration mode compared to the transverse vibration mode under hydrostatic pressure. In practical underwater conditions, piezoelectric devices typically rely on longitudinal vibrations. This finding further substantiates the material’s potential as a candidate for underwater transducer applications.

FIG. 7.

Fitting results for BS-64PT ceramics in the 33-mode at (a) 0, (b) 400 MPa hydrostatic stress. Hydrostatic stress-dependent (c)–(e) piezoelectric coefficient d33, electromechanical coupling coefficient k33, and compliance coefficient sE33.

FIG. 7.

Fitting results for BS-64PT ceramics in the 33-mode at (a) 0, (b) 400 MPa hydrostatic stress. Hydrostatic stress-dependent (c)–(e) piezoelectric coefficient d33, electromechanical coupling coefficient k33, and compliance coefficient sE33.

Close modal

Figure 8 shows the behavior of several well-known Pb-based perovskite-structured materials under uniaxial and hydrostatic pressure. Typically, the d33 behavior in perovskite-structured PZT-based ceramics follows a pattern of initially increasing and then decreasing with the rise of uniaxial stress. Figure 8(a) illustrates the critical uniaxial stress values at which the d33 values begin to decrease for various reported PZT-based materials. It is noteworthy that BS-PT demonstrates the highest critical uniaxial stress compared to the reported results, indicating an enhanced resistance to uniaxial-induced depolarization in BS-PT ceramics. Under hydrostatic pressure, the values of d31 and d33 in BS-64PT ceramics showed a 7.6% and 8% variation (decay), respectively, at 400 MPa compared to the stress-free state. In contrast, the variation in properties for BS-PT ceramics is the lowest among well-known perovskite-structured materials, as depicted in Figs. 8(b) and 8(c). This highlights the exceptional resistance of BS-64PT ceramics to hydrostatic pressure.

FIG. 8.

(a) Comparison of the critical uniaxial stress where d33 starts to decrease for well-known PZT-based oxide materials (untextured PMN–PZT-R and textured PMN–PZT-T ceramics, PZT-5H, PZT-5A, PZT-4, Pb(Ni1/3Sb2/3)-PbTiO3-PbZrO3 (PNS-PZT).13,22,29 (b) Variation in d31 and (c) d33 values in PMN-PT ceramics, PMN–PZT textured ceramics, and PIN-PMN-PT single crystals under hydrostatic pressure.12,16,28,30

FIG. 8.

(a) Comparison of the critical uniaxial stress where d33 starts to decrease for well-known PZT-based oxide materials (untextured PMN–PZT-R and textured PMN–PZT-T ceramics, PZT-5H, PZT-5A, PZT-4, Pb(Ni1/3Sb2/3)-PbTiO3-PbZrO3 (PNS-PZT).13,22,29 (b) Variation in d31 and (c) d33 values in PMN-PT ceramics, PMN–PZT textured ceramics, and PIN-PMN-PT single crystals under hydrostatic pressure.12,16,28,30

Close modal

The exceptional stability of piezoelectric properties under both uniaxial and hydrostatic pressure in BS-PT ceramics can be primarily attributed to their elevated anisotropy energy compared to other perovskite-structured PMN or PZT-based ceramics reported. In ferroelectrics, anisotropy energy is linked to the directional dependence of physical properties, including the alignment of electric dipoles within the material. Generally, there is an observed correlation wherein higher anisotropy energy is connected to increased coercivity EC in ferroelectrics. This relationship arises because materials with higher anisotropy energy necessitate more energy to reorient their electric dipoles and transition between polarization states. Coercivity field, a measure of resistance to changes in polarization, is influenced by the energy barriers associated with domain switching. Notably, among the well-known Pb-based perovskite-structured materials in Fig. 8, BS-PT ceramics exhibit the highest coercivity field EC. To provide a clearer understanding of the impact of anisotropy energy on piezoelectric properties under pressure, we have depicted a schematic representation of pressure-dependent energy contours in ferroelectrics with low and high anisotropy energy in Fig. 9. In ferroelectrics with low anisotropy energy, applied pressure can diminish anisotropy by reducing the energy barrier between two domain states until reaching a critical pressure, σ L, where the piezoelectric coefficient d33 attains its maximum value. Subsequently, d33 decreases as pressure continues to rise due to the intensified pressure-induced anisotropy energy, as illustrated in Fig. 9(a). Conversely, in ferroelectrics with high anisotropy energy, a more substantial critical pressure, σ H, is required for the piezoelectric coefficient d33 to reach its peak value, but the overall trend remains the same, as depicted in Fig. 9(b). Consequently, the robust stability of piezoelectric properties under pressure is primarily ascribed to the elevated anisotropy energy in ferroelectrics.

FIG. 9.

Schematic illustration of pressure-dependent energy contours in ferroelectrics with (a) low anisotropy energy and (b) high anisotropy energy.

FIG. 9.

Schematic illustration of pressure-dependent energy contours in ferroelectrics with (a) low anisotropy energy and (b) high anisotropy energy.

Close modal

In summary, this study comprehensively investigated the dielectric, piezoelectric, and ferroelectric properties of BS-64PT ceramics under uniaxial pressure, as well as the electromechanical performance under hydrostatic pressure. At uniaxial pressure below 100 MPa, the material exhibits remarkable characteristics with a piezoelectric coefficient under bias field exceeding 450 pC/N and a piezoelectric coefficient under large signals surpassing 630 pC/N. Even when subjected to a uniaxial stress of 150 MPa, its original performance remains at 50%, showing good resistance to uniaxial stress-induced depolarization. Additionally, uniaxial compression suppresses the ferroelectric properties of the BS-64PT ceramics. For BS-64PT samples under hydrostatic pressure in the 31 and 33 modes, electromechanical constants sij, kij, and dij were determined using both direct calculation and admittance fitting methods. The results indicate that at lower pressure, both methods yield similar outcomes. However, at relatively higher pressures, significant discrepancies arise due to noticeable losses, with the admittance fitting method providing more precise piezoelectric constants. Under 400 MPa, the BS-64PT ceramics exhibit k31 = 0.32, d31 = 155 pC/N, k33 = 0.68, and d33 = 390 pC/N. The results show that the BS-64PT ceramics possess more stable piezoelectric properties under uniaxial and hydrostatic pressure, compared to most of Pb-based perovskite-structured materials. The exceptional stability of piezoelectric properties in BS-PT ceramics can be primarily attributed to their elevated anisotropy energy or coercivity field compared to other perovskite-structured PZT-based ceramics reported. This study is poised to offer valuable insights into the design of piezoelectric transducers using BS-PT high-temperature piezoelectric ceramics in various application scenarios.

This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (No. 2023YFF0720700), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NNSFC) (No. 52272120), and the Central Government Funds of Guiding Local Scientific and Technological Development for Sichuan Province (No. 2022ZYD0018).

The authors have no conflicts to disclose.

  Xiaodan Ren and Ruoqi Jin contributed equally to this work.

Xiaodan Ren: Conceptualization (equal); Data curation (lead); Formal analysis (lead); Writing – original draft (lead). Ruoqi Jin: Data curation (equal); Formal analysis (equal); Investigation (equal); Writing – review & editing (equal). Mingyang Tang: Data curation (equal); Formal analysis (equal); Writing – review & editing (equal). Liqing Hu: Data curation (equal); Formal analysis (supporting). Xin Liu: Funding acquisition (supporting). Yike Wang: Resources (supporting). Sanhong Wang: Data curation (supporting). Zhuo Xu: Funding acquisition (equal). Liwei D. Geng: Conceptualization (equal); Formal analysis (equal); Writing – review & editing (equal). Yongke Yan: Conceptualization (equal); Funding acquisition (equal); Writing – review & editing (equal).

The data that support the findings of this study are available within the article.

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