Magnetic remanent states in a rectangular array of thin-film pseudo-spin-valve elements are studied using off-axis electron holography in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). An approach based on focused ion-beam milling is used to minimize damage to the magnetic properties of the elements during preparation for TEM examination in plan-view geometry. Experimental electron holographic phase images are used to measure the switching fields of the Co and NiFe layers in each of three adjacent elements separately, and comparisons with micromagnetic simulations are used to infer the true magnetic thicknesses and widths of the layers. Demagnetizing fields are included in the discussion of the results, and the possibility that the conclusions may be affected by the procedure used to analyze the holograms is discussed.
Off-axis electron holography of pseudo-spin-valve thin-film magnetic elements
T. Kasama, P. Barpanda, R. E. Dunin-Borkowski, S. B. Newcomb, M. R. McCartney, F. J. Castaño, C. A. Ross; Off-axis electron holography of pseudo-spin-valve thin-film magnetic elements. J. Appl. Phys. 1 July 2005; 98 (1): 013903. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1943511
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