Based on the nanothermodynamical approach, we performed the thermodynamical predictions of nanodiamonds synthesized by pulsed-laser ablation in liquid. The nanothermodynamical analyses showed that the formation of nanodiamonds with sizes of 3–5 nm would be preferable to that of large nanodiamonds in the pressure-temperature region of 10–15 GPa and 4000–5000 K created by pulsed-laser ablation of a graphite target in water in the carbon phase diagram. Meanwhile, the probabilities of the phase transition from graphite to diamond are calculated to be rather high, up to 103102 in the same pressure-temperature region. These theoretical results indicate that pulsed-laser ablation in liquid is expected to be an effective industrial route to synthesize ultrananocrystalline diamonds.

1.
D. M.
Gruen
,
Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci.
29
,
211
(
1999
).
2.
F. P.
Bundy
,
W. A.
Bassett
,
M. S.
Weathers
,
R. J.
Hemley
,
H. K.
Mao
, and
A. F.
Goncharov
,
Carbon
34
,
141
(
1996
).
3.
G. W.
Yang
,
J. B.
Wang
, and
Q. X.
Liu
,
J. Phys.: Condens. Matter
10
,
7923
(
1998
).
4.
D.
Poondi
and
J.
Singh
,
J. Mater. Sci.
35
,
2467
(
2000
).
5.
J. B.
Wang
,
C. Y.
Zhang
,
X. L.
Zhong
, and
G. W.
Yang
,
Chem. Phys. Lett.
361
,
86
(
2002
).
6.
C. H.
Liang
,
Y.
Shimizu
,
T.
Sasaki
, and
N.
Koshizaki
,
J. Phys. Chem. B
107
,
9220
(
2003
).
7.
Q. X.
Liu
,
C. X.
Wang
,
W.
Zhang
, and
G. W.
Yang
,
Chem. Phys. Lett.
382
,
1
(
2003
).
8.
G. W.
Yang
and
J. B.
Wang
,
Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process.
71
,
343
(
2000
).
9.
J. B.
Wang
,
G. W.
Yang
,
C. Y.
Zhang
,
X. L.
Zhong
, and
Z. A.
Ren
,
Chem. Phys. Lett.
367
,
10
(
2003
).
10.
G. W.
Yang
and
J. B.
Wang
,
Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process.
72
,
475
(
2001
).
11.
C. X.
Wang
,
Y. H.
Yang
,
Q. X.
Liu
, and
G. W.
Yang
,
J. Phys. Chem. B
108
,
728
(
2004
).
12.
G. W.
Yang
and
B. X.
Liu
,
Phys. Rev. B
61
,
4500
(
2000
).
13.
Q. X.
Liu
,
G. W.
Yang
, and
J. X.
Zhang
,
Chem. Phys. Lett.
373
,
57
(
2003
).
14.
N. M.
Hwang
,
J. H.
Hahn
, and
D. Y.
Poon
,
J. Cryst. Growth
160
,
87
(
1996
).
15.
C. X.
Wang
,
Y. H.
Yang
, and
G. W.
Yang
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
84
,
3034
(
2004
).
16.
C. X.
Wang
,
Y. H.
Yang
,
N. S.
Xu
, and
G. W.
Yang
,
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
126
,
11303
(
2004
).
17.
C. Y.
Zhang
,
C. X.
Wang
,
Y. H.
Yang
, and
G. W.
Yang
,
J. Phys. Chem. B
108
,
2589
(
2004
).
18.
J. B.
Wang
and
G. W.
Yang
,
J. Phys.: Condens. Matter
11
,
7089
(
1999
).
19.
H. T.
Dobbs
and
D.
Vvedensky
,
Phys. Rev. Lett.
79
,
897
(
1997
).
20.
N. W.
Winter
and
F.
Ree
,
J. Comput.-Aided Mater. Des.
,
5
,
279
(
1998
).
You do not currently have access to this content.