This study reports a metastable hcp→fcc polymorphic transformation in elemental titanium induced by high-energy mechanical attrition in a planetary ball mill. The transformation is monitored and verified by x-ray and electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The grain size decreases and lattice parameter increases with continued milling. The phase change is gradual and accompanied by about 16% increase in volume per atom. The milling intensity and deformation mode seem crucial for the completion of the change in crystal structure. The extent and influence of both substitutional and interstitial impurities in this transformation have been assessed. It is suggested that structural instability due to negative (from core to boundary) hydrostatic pressure arising out of nanocrystallization or grain refinement, increasing lattice expansion, and plastic strain/strain rate is responsible for this hcp→fcc polymorphic transformation in titanium. Thus, the present transformation is similar in nature and genesis to those in elemental niobium and zirconium earlier reported by us.
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Research Article| February 06 2003
Formation of face-centered-cubic titanium by mechanical attrition
P. P. Chattopadhyay;
I. Manna, P. P. Chattopadhyay, P. Nandi, F. Banhart, H.-J. Fecht; Formation of face-centered-cubic titanium by mechanical attrition. J. Appl. Phys. 1 February 2003; 93 (3): 1520–1524. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1530718
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