Many materials systems are currently under consideration as potential replacements for as the gate dielectric material for sub-0.1 μm complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) technology. A systematic consideration of the required properties of gate dielectrics indicates that the key guidelines for selecting an alternative gate dielectric are (a) permittivity, band gap, and band alignment to silicon, (b) thermodynamic stability, (c) film morphology, (d) interface quality, (e) compatibility with the current or expected materials to be used in processing for CMOS devices, (f) process compatibility, and (g) reliability. Many dielectrics appear favorable in some of these areas, but very few materials are promising with respect to all of these guidelines. A review of current work and literature in the area of alternate gate dielectrics is given. Based on reported results and fundamental considerations, the pseudobinary materials systems offer large flexibility and show the most promise toward successful integration into the expected processing conditions for future CMOS technologies, especially due to their tendency to form at interfaces with Si (e.g. silicates). These pseudobinary systems also thereby enable the use of other high-κ materials by serving as an interfacial high-κ layer. While work is ongoing, much research is still required, as it is clear that any material which is to replace as the gate dielectric faces a formidable challenge. The requirements for process integration compatibility are remarkably demanding, and any serious candidates will emerge only through continued, intensive investigation.
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Review Article| May 15 2001
High-κ gate dielectrics: Current status and materials properties considerations
G. D. Wilk;
R. M. Wallace;
G. D. Wilk, R. M. Wallace, J. M. Anthony; High-κ gate dielectrics: Current status and materials properties considerations. J. Appl. Phys. 15 May 2001; 89 (10): 5243–5275. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1361065
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