Positron lifetime investigations of vacancy distributions in ingots of silicon have shown that vacancies are retained after growth at nearly constant concentrations close to 3×1016 cm−3. The vacancies are generally monovacancies and are suggested to be trapped by oxygen clusters. Trapped divacancies can also be formed but they are unstable upon heat treatment at 1000 °C for 16 h. This observation is invoked to explain anomalous oxygen precipitation. This heat treatment has little effect on the distributions of monovacancies in the ingots investigated, so the complexes between vacancies and oxygen clusters are suggested to be formed at temperatures above 1000 °C during the growth.

1.
H. Harada, T. Abe, and J. Chikawa, in Semiconductor Silicon 1986, edited by H. R. Huff, T. Abe, and B. O. Kolbesen (Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ, 1986), p. 76.
2.
A.
Furuya
,
I.
Suzuki
,
Y.
Shimanuki
, and
K.
Murai
,
J. Electrochem. Soc.
135
,
677
(
1988
).
3.
T.
Abe
and
H.
Takeno
,
Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.
262
,
3
(
1992
).
4.
S.
Kimura
,
H.
Ono
,
T.
Ikarashi
, and
T.
Ishikawa
,
Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.
32
,
L1074
(
1993
).
5.
A.
Uedono
,
Y.
Ujihira
,
A.
Ikari
, and
O.
Yoda
,
Mater. Sci. Forum
105–110
,
1301
(
1992
).
6.
A.
Ikari
,
H.
Haga
,
O.
Yoda
,
A.
Uedono
, and
Y.
Ujihara
,
Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.
262
,
69
(
1992
).
7.
P.
Mascher
,
W.
Puff
,
S.
Hahn
,
K. H.
Cho
, and
B. Y.
Lee
,
Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.
262
,
665
(
1992
).
8.
A.
Ikari
,
K.
Kawakami
,
H.
Haga
,
A.
Uedono
,
L.
Wei
,
T.
Kawano
, and
S.
Tanigawa
,
Mater. Sci. Forum
143–147
,
1583
(
1994
).
9.
R. N.
West
,
Adv. Phys.
22
,
263
(
1973
).
10.
S.
Dannefaer
,
Phys. Status Solidi A
102
,
481
(
1987
).
11.
P.
Mascher
,
S.
Dannefaer
, and
D.
Kerr
,
Phys. Rev. B
40
,
11764
(
1989
).
12.
S.
Dannefaer
and
D.
Kerr
,
Phys. Rev. B
48
,
9142
(
1993
).
13.
S.
Dannefaer
and
D.
Kerr
,
J. Appl. Phys.
60
,
1313
(
1986
).
14.
S.
Dannefaer
,
T.
Bretagnon
,
K.
Abdurahman
, and
D.
Kerr
,
Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.
262
,
671
(
1992
).
15.
A.
Ikari
,
H.
Haga
,
O.
Yoda
,
A.
Uedono
, and
Y.
Ujihara
,
Mater. Sci. Forum
117–118
,
225
(
1993
).
16.
T.
Hallberg
and
J. L.
Lindström
,
J. Appl. Phys.
72
,
5130
(
1992
).
17.
J. W.
Corbett
,
G. D.
Watkins
, and
R. S.
McDonald
,
Phys. Rev. A
135
,
1381
(
1964
).
18.
R. C.
Newman
,
J. Phys. C
18
,
L967
(
1985
).
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.