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1.
A guide to one method of designing such semiconductor devices is furnished by the work of F. B. Llewellyn on transit time vacuum‐tube diodes:
Bell System Tech. J.
13
,
59
101
(
1934
);
15
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575
586
(
1936
). ,
Bell Syst. Tech. J.
Methods of extending this approach to semiconductors have been indicated by W. Schockley, U.S. Patent 2,623,102 (Junction Transistor).
Another physical effect considered by one of us (W.S.) in unpublished work is the negative differential mobility to be expected for holes in very high electric fields. Interest in this predicted effect was the provoking cause of the research on high field mobilities, see
E. J.
Ryder
and
W.
Shockley
,
Phys. Rev.
81
,
139
(
1951
)
and
E. J.
Ryder
,
Phys. Rev.
90
,
766
769
(
1953
).
The theory of this effect has been independently discovered by
H.
Krömer
,
Z. Physik
134
,
435
(
1953
), who calls it the “Staueffect” but does not consider its utilization as a power source.
2.
Passive elements can have the desired directionality, i.e., lead to unsymmetrical current‐voltage matrices, only in the presence of magnetic fields. For a proof see
H. B. G.
Casimir
,
Revs. Modern Phys.
17
,
343
350
(
1945
).
3.
Mason
,
Hewitt
, and
Wick
,
J. Appl. Phys.
24
,
166
175
(
1953
).
The fact that transmission through a crystal is nonreciprocal in the presence of a magnetic field was first pointed out by
E. M.
McMillan
,
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
19
,
922
(
1947
).
4.
C. L.
Hogan
,
Bell System Tech. J.
31
,
1
32
(
1952
).
5.
This test was made by W. H. Hewitt.
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